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I disturbi cognitivi nella schizofrenia

  • A. GalluzzoEmail author
  • E. Carpi
  • A. Crescini

Riassunto

I disturbi cognitivi sono considerati una componente fondamentale della schizofrenia. All’esito di un acceso dibattito in ordine alla natura funzionale o organica della malattia (Palmer et al., 2009), la schizofrenia, attualmente, è considerata dalla maggior parte degli studiosi un disturbo neurobiologico accompagnato da deficit cognitivi (Lesh et al., 2011). Già Kraepelin, nell’edizione del 1919 del suo Textbook of psychiatry, parlava di “dementia praecox” (“sub -acute development of a peculiar simple condition of mental weakness occurring at a youthful age”), sostenendo la possibilità di un’eziologia del disturbo schizofrenico biologica e non solo psicosociale, con una predisposizione genetica e possibili lesioni prenatali (“injury to the germ”). Anche Feinberg nel 1982 ipotizzava che la schizofrenia generasse da un’eccessiva distruzione delle sinapsi di connessione nella corteccia cerebrale durante lo sviluppo adolescenziale (Feinberg, 1982). Recentemente Insel ha proposto un rethinking della schizofrenia considerandola un disturbo del neurosviluppo con inizio nella vita prenatale o perinatale, nel quale la comparsa della sintomatologia psicotica rappresenterebbe non più la fase iniziale della malattia, bensì la fase avanzata (Insel, 2010).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unità Operativa di Psichiatria 22 Dipartimento di Salute MentaleAzienda Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di BresciaItaly

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