Evaluation of Cerebral Vessels

  • Robert A. Willinsky
Conference paper


In the past decade, there has been a dramatic shift to noninvasive imaging of the cerebral vessels. This is justified, as selective catheter angiography [digital subtraction angiography (DSA)] has a risk of neurological complications despite advances in techniques and safer contrast agents. Carotid Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is an excellent screening tool to study the carotid bifurcation in patients with transient ischemic attacks and stroke. Transcranial DUS is useful to detect early vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Multislice computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have become effective methods with which to image cerebral arteries and veins. DSA is now used selectively in treatment planning after noninvasive imaging has been used for diagnosis.


Magnetic Resonance Angio Moyamoya Disease Dural Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Developmental Venous Anomaly 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Willinsky
    • 1
  1. 1.The Toronto Western HospitalUniversity Health Network, University of TorontoCanada

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