Hemorrhage, Stroke, and Ischemia of the Neonatal Brain

  • Maria I. Argyropoulou


The pattern of neonatal brain lesions associated with hypoxia-ischemia depends not only on the severity of the event but also on gestational age at birth. The immature brain of preterm babies reacts to hypoxia-ischemia differently than does the brain of full-term babies [1, 2]. White matter lesions are mainly observed in premature babies, whereas gray matter lesions are predominant in full-term babies. Germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal venous hemorrhagic infarction (PVHI), post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and periventricular leuko-malacia (PVL) with a focal necrotic and a diffuse component represent the spectrum of lesions responsible for the encephalopathy of prematurity [2]. Parasagittal watershed infarcts, injury to the basal ganglia, and the perirolandic cortex or more extensive lesions associated with macrocystic encephalomalacia comprise the spectrum of lesions following hypoxia-ischemia in the full-term baby [3–5]. Stroke is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in the neonatal period [6, 7]. Neonatal stroke is less common than adult stroke but more common than that in childhood, and the carotid artery territory is most commonly affected [6, 7].


Diffusion Tensor Imaging Magnetization Transfer Ratio Perinatal Asphyxia Periventricular White Matter Neonatal Brain 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria I. Argyropoulou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Medical SchoolUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

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