Human Evolution and Physical Exercise: The Concept of Being “Born to Run”

  • Livio LuziEmail author


Born to Run was the third album produced by the American singer-songwriter Bruce Springsteen. It was released by Columbia Records on August 25, 1975. The same title was used in the following decades for: at least one novel, an episode in the TV series Terminator, a book on a Mexican tribe of extreme runners, and it even appeared on the cover page of Nature, in November 2004. The common denominator of all the uses of Born to Run is the recognition of the need of humans to run in order to survive.


Physical Exercise Total Energy Expenditure Marathon Runner Loud Call Total Daily Energy Expenditure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kasting JF, Siefert JL (2002) Life and the evolution of Earth’s atmosphere. Science 10:1066–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J et al (2002) Molecular biology of the cell. New York, Garland ScienceGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wood B, Collar M (1999) The human genus. Science 284:65–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cerling TE (1992) Development of grasslands and savannas in East Africa during the neogene. Paleogeog Paleoclimatol Paleoecol 97:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leonard WR, Robertson ML (1997) Comparative primate energetics and hominid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 102:265–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ulijaszek SJ (2002) Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context. Proc Nutr Society 61:517–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Isbell LA, Pruetz JD, Lewis M, Young TP (1998) Locomotor activity differences between sympatric patas monkeys (Erytrocebus Patas) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in Homo. Am J Phys Antropol 105:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bramble DL, Lieberman DE (2004) Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 433:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luzi L, Pizzini G (2004) Born to run: training our genes to cope with ecosystem changes in the twentieth century. Sport Sci Health 1:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Neel JV (1962) Diabetes mellitus: a “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress”. Am J Hum Genetic 14:353–362Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sport Sciences, Nutrition and HealthUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations