Oxygen Transport and Cellular Mechanisms during Hyperbaric Oxygenation

  • E. M. Camporesi
  • M. F. Mascia
Conference paper


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) entails exposure of the whole body to increased pressure, while breathing oxygen or an oxygen-enriched gas mixture. The upper limit of pressure for therapeutic treatments is the use of 100% 02 at 3 atm abs, because exceeding this limit will rapidly produce, in minutes, neurologic symptoms, leading to seizures and loss of consciousness. The therapeutic use of exposure pressures higher than 3 atmosphere, while breathing helium-oxygen (Heliox) or nitrogen-oxygen (Nitrox) mixtures, does not appear to have significant clinical advantages over the exposure of 3 atm abs. The low boundary for therapeutic oxygenation is exposure to oxygen enriched air at 1 atm abs (ambient pressure), as is routinely used in the hospital setting. Clinical experience has shown that significant hyperbaric therapeutic results begin to appear at 1.6 to 1.8 atm abs oxygen.


Oxygen Partial Pressure Oxygen Transport Hyperbaric Oxygen Pulmonary Capillary Blood Terminal Arteriole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Moon RE, Camporesi EM, Shelton DI (1987) Prediction of arterial P02 during hyperbaric oxygenation. Proceedings of the ninth international symposium on underwater and hyperbaric physiology. Bethesda: Undersea and hyperbaric medical society, pp 1127–1131Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kitamura H, Sawa T, Ikenzono E (1972) Postoperative hypoxemia: the contribution of age to the maldistribution of ventilation. Anesthesiology 36:244–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kilmartin JV, Rossi-Bernardi L (1973) Interaction of hemoglobin with hydrogen ions, carbon dioxide, and organic phosphates. Physiol Rev 53:836–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jain KK (1990) Textbook of hyperbaric medicine. Physical, physiological and biochemical aspects of hyperbaric oxygenation. Toronto and Lewiston, NY: Hogrefe and Huber, pp 11–25Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nunn JF (1987) Applied respiratory physiology 3rd Ed., Chap. 29. Hyperoxia and oxygen toxicity. London: Butterworths, pp 478–482Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davis JC (1991) Enhancement of healing. In: Camporesi EM, Barker AC (eds) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a critical review. Bethesda: Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, pp 127–140Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saltzman HA, Smith WW, Fuson RL (1965) Hyperbaric oxygenation. Monography Surg Sci 2:1–68Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krogh A (1959) The anatomy and physiology of capillaries. New York: HafnerGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kreuzer F (1982) Oxygen supply to tissues: the Krogh model and its assumptions. Experientia Basel 38:1415–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Popel AS (1989) Theory of oxygen transport to tissue. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 17:257–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ellsworth ML, Ellis CG, Popel AS et al (1994) Role of microvessels in oxygen supply to tissue. News in Physiological Sciences 9:119–123Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Duling BR, Berne RM (1970) Longitudinal gradients in periarteriolar oxygen tension: a possible mechanism for the participation of oxygen in local regulation of blood flow. Circ Res 27:669–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Duling BR, Kuschinsky W, Wahl M (1979) Measurements of the perivascular P02 in the vicinity of the pial vessels in the cat. Pfluegers Arch 383:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ivanov KP, Derii AN, Samoilov MO et al (1982) Diffusion of oxygen from the smallest arteries of the brain. Pfluegers Arch 393:118–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kuo L, Pittman RN (1988) Effect of hemodilution on oxygen transport in arteriolar networks of hamster striated muscle. Am J Physiol 254:H331-H339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stein JC, Ellis CG, Ellsworth ML (1993) Relationship between capillary and systemic venous P02 during nonhypoxic and hypoxic ventilation. Am J Physiol 265:H537-H542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salzano JV, Camporesi EM, Stolp BW et al (1984) Physiological response to exercise at 47 and 66 ATA. J Appl Physiol 57:1055–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moon RE, Camporesi EM (1994) Respiratory monitoring. Chapter 36 In: Anesthesia. R.D. Miller (Ed) Churchill Livingstone, pp 1253–1291Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Whalen RE, Saltzman HA, Holloway DH (1965) Cardiovascular and blood gas responses to hyperbaric oxygenation. Am J Cardiol 15:638–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Savitt MA, Rankin JS, Elbeery JR et al (1994) Influence of hyperbaric oxygen on left ventricular contractility, total coronary blood flow, and myocardial oxygen consumption in the conscious dog. Undersea and Hyperbaric Med 21:169–183Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klein J (1990) Normobaric pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Anesth Analg 70:195–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phelps DL (1993) Retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Clin North Am 40:705–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Camporesi EM, Mascia MF, Thorn SR (1996) Physiological principles of hyperbaric oxygenation. In: G. Oriani, A. Marroni, F. Wattel (eds) Handbook of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Springer Verlag, Milan, Italy, pp 35–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lehrer RI (1972) Functional aspects of a second mechanism of candidacidal activity by human neutrophils. J Clin Invest 51:2566–2572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lingaas E, Midtvedt T (1987) The influence of high and low pressure on phagocytosis of escherichia coli by human neutrophils in vitro. Aviat Sp Environ Med 58:1211–1214Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Klebanoff SJ (1975) Antimicrobial mechanism in neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Seminars in Hematology 12:117–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mandell GL (1974) Bactericidal activity of aerobic and anaerobic polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Infec Immunol 9:337–341Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mader JT, Brown GL, Guckian JC et al (1980) A mechanism for the amelioration by hyperbaric oxygen of experimental staphylococcal osteomyelitis in rabbits. J Infec Dis 142: 915–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    von Andrian UH, Chambers JD, McEvoy LM et al (1991) Two step model of leukocyteendothelial cell interaction in inflammation: Distinct roles for LECAM-1 and the leukocyte B2 integrins in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:7538–7542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Simpson PJ, Todd III RF, Fantone JC et al (1988) Reduction of experimental canine myocardial reperfusion injury by a monoclonal antibody (Anti-Mol, Anti-CD lib) that inhibits leukocyte adhesion. J Clin Invest 81:624–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lefer DJ, Shandelya SML, Serrano CV et al (1993) Cardioprotective actions of a monoclonal antibody against CD-18 in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Circulation 88:1779–1787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bitterman H, Cohen L (1989) Effects of hyperbaric oxygen in circulatory shock induced by splanchnic artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 67:1033–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thomas MP, Brown LA, Sponseller DR et al (1990) Myocardial infarct size reduction by the synergistic effect of hyperbaric oxygen and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Am Heart J 120:791–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thorn SR (1993) Functional inhibition of leukocyte B2 integrins by hyperbaric oxygen in carbon monoxide-mediated brain injury in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 123:248–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zamboni WA, Roth AC, Russell RC et al (1993) Morphologic analysis of the microcirculation during reperfusion of ischemic skeletal muscle and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen. Plast Reconstr Surg 91:1110–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ellestad MH, Shandling AH, Hart GB et al (1992) Hyperbaric oxygen and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction. The “hot MI” study. Circulation 86:1–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thorn SR (1993) Leukocytes in carbon monoxide-mediated brain oxidative injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 123:234–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thorn SR, Mendiguren I, Fisher D (1994) Parenchymal lung injury following smoke inhalation: Inhibition by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Undersea Biomed Res 78:55–56Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thorn SR, Mendiguren I, VanWinkle T et al (1994) Smoke inhalation with a concurrent systemic stress results in lung alveolar injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:220–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ischiropoulos H, Mendiguren I, Fisher D et al (1994) Role of neutrophils and nitric oxide in lung alveolar injury from smoke inhalation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:337–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gadd MA, McClellan DS, Neuman TS et al (1990) Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on murine neutrophil and T-lymphocyte functions. Crit Care Med 18:974–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sharar SR, Winn RK, Murry CE et al (1991) A CD18 monoclonal antibody increases the incidence and severity of subcutaneous abscess formation after high-dose Staphylococcus aureus injection in rabbits. Surgery 110:213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mileski WJ, Sikes P, Atiles L et al (1993) Inhibition of leukocyte adherence and susceptibility to infection. J Surg Res 54:349–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bowles AL, Dauber JH, Daniele RP (1979) The effect of hyperoxia on migration of alveolar macrophages in vitro. Am Rev Respir Dis 120:541–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rister M, Baehner RL (1977) Effect of hyperoxia on superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and alveolar macrophages. Br J Haematol 36: 241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Murphy SA, Hyams JS, Fisher AB et al (1975) Effects of oxygen exposure on in vitro function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages. J Clin Invest 56:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Andersen V, Hellung-Larsen P, Sorensen SF (1968) Optimal oxygen tension for human lymphocytes in culture. J Cell Physiol 72:149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mizrahi A, Vosseller GV, Yagi Y et al (1972) The effect of dissolved oxygen partial pressure on growth, metabolism and immunoglobulin production in a permanent human lymphocyte cell line culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 139:118–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hansbrough JF, Piacentine JG, Eiseman B (1980) Immunosuppression by hyperbaric oxygen Surgery 87:662–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Feldmeier J J, Boswell RN, Brown M et al (1984) The effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the immunologic status of healthy human subjects. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Hyperbaric Medicine 41–46Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lotovin AP, Morozov VG, Khavinson VK et al (1981) On the problem of cellular and humoral immunity under conditions of hyperoxia. In 7th International Congress on Hyperbaric Medicine, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bitterman N, Bitterman H, Kinarty A et al (1993) Effect of a single exposure to hyperbaric oxygen on blood mononuclear cells in human subjects. Undersea and Hyperbaric Med 20 197–204Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. M. Camporesi
  • M. F. Mascia

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations