Relationship between Chronic Dyspnea and Expiratory Flow Limitation in Patients with COPD

  • N. G. Koulouris
  • J. Milic-Emili
Conference paper


Dyspnea (breathlessness) is a common symptom of patients with respiratory disease which imposes increasing functional limitation as the disease progresses. In severe cases, dyspnea at rest can be a major disability for which there is often no effective treatment. Dyspnea is the main complaint of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is often the reason for seeking medical care and compensation. There are no precise data on its prevalence, but it has been estimated that in the United Kingdom alone 750.000 patients with chronic bronchitis become dyspneic while walking on level ground [1]. Despite its prevalence, the mechanisms contributing to dyspnea are not fully understood and appear to be multifactorial [2, 3].


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient Flow Limitation Tidal Breathing Expiratory Flow Limitation 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. G. Koulouris
  • J. Milic-Emili

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