Advertisement

Problema: patologie della mammella nell’uomo

  • Walter Krause
  • P. S. H. Soon
  • J. Michael Dixon

Riassunto

La ginecomastia è un aumento di volume della mammella dell’uomo. Il termine deriva dalle parole greche “ψΨνε” (donna) e “μαστgoσ” (mammella). Letteralmente, il termine indica la mammella della donna, per cui il termine “andromastia” sarebbe più adeguato (Leiber 1995).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliografia

  1. Ambrogetti D, Ciatto S, Catarzi S, Muraca MG (1996) The combined diagnosis of male breast lesions: a review of a series of 748 consecutive cases. Radiol Med (Torino) 91:356–359Google Scholar
  2. Amrikachi M, Green LK, Rone R, Ramzy I (2001) Gynecomastia: cytologic features and diagnostic pitfalls in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 45:948–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Appelbaum AH, Evans GF, Levy KR, Amirkhan RH, Schumpert TD (1999) Mammographic appearances of male breast disease. Radiographics 19:559–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernard-Gallon DJ, Dechelotte PJ, Le Corre L, Vissac-Sabatier C, Favy DA, Cravello L, De Latour MP, Bignon YJ (2003) Expression of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in male breast cancers and gynecomastias. Anticancer Res 23:661–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Calzada L, Torres-Calleja J, Martinez JM, Pedron N (2001) Measurement of androgen and estrogen receptors in breast tissue from subjects with anabolic steroid-dependent gynecomastia. Life Sci 69:1465–1469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coppola A, Cuomo MA (1998) Prolactinoma in the male. Physiopathological, clinical, and therapeutic features. Minerva Endocrinol 23:7–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Damsa C, Bumb A, Bianchi-Demicheli F, Vidailhet P, Sterck R, Andreoli A, Beyenburg S (2004) “Dopamine-dependent” side effects of: a clinical review. J Clin Psychiatry 65:1064–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniels IR, Layer GT (2003) Testicular tumours presenting as gynaecomastia. Eur J Surg Oncol 29:437–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Das DK, Junaid TA, Mathews SB et al (1995) Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of male breast lesions. Acta Cytol 39:870–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. De Jong MM, Nolte IM, te Meerman GJ, van der Graaf W T, Oosterwijk JC, Kleibeuker JH, Schaapveld M, de Vries EG (2002) Genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 involved in breast cancer susceptibility. J Med Genet 39:225–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doughty JC, Wilson CR (2003) Tamoxifen is unproved for gynaecomastia (letter). BMJ 327:1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frank TS, Deffenbaugh AM, Reid JE, Hulick M, Ward BE, Lingenfelter B, Gumpper KL, Scholl T, Tavtigian SV, Pruss DR, Critchfield GC (2002) Clinical characteristics of individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: analysis of 10,000 individuals. J Clin Oncol 20:1480–1490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gatalica Z, Norris BA, Kovatich AJ (2000) Immunohistochemical localization of prostate-specific antigen in ductal epithelium of male breast. Potential diagnostic pitfall in patients with gynecomastia. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 8:158–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gill MS, Kayani N, Khan MN, Hasan SH (2000) Breast diseases in males-a morphological review of 150 cases. J Pak Med Assoc 50:177–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Giordano SH, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN (2002) Breast cancer in men. Ann Intern Med 137:678–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hunfeld KP, Bassler R, Kronsbein H (1997) “Diabetic mastopathy” in the male breast-a special type of gynecomastia. A comparative study of lymphocytic mastitis and gynecomastia. Pathol Res Pract 193:197–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ioulios P, Charalampos M, Efrossini T (2003) The spectrum of cutaneous reactions associated with calcium antagonists: a review of the literature and the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms. Dermatol Online J 9:6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Joshi A, Kapila K, Verma K (1999) Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of male breast masses. Nineteen years of experience. Acta Cytol 43:334–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jover F, Cuadrado JM, Roig P, Rodriguez M, Andreu L, Merino J (2004) Efavirenz-associated gynecomastia: report of five cases and review of the literature. Breast J 10:244–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jun Yang Y (2002) Gynecomastia with marked cellular atypia associated with chemotherapy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 125:613–614Google Scholar
  21. Khan HN, Blamey KW (2003) Endocrine treatment of physiological gynaecomastia. Tamoxifen seems to be effective. BMJ 327:301–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kidwai N, Gong Y, Sun X, Deshpande CG, Yeldandi AV, Rao MS, Badve S (2004) Expression of androgen receptor and prostatespecific antigen in male breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res 5:R18–R23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krause W, Splieth B (1996) Erkrankungen der männlichen Brustdrüse. Hautarzt 47:422–426Google Scholar
  24. Labhart A, Hedinger C, Kistler G, Müller J, et al (1978) Testis. In Labhart Klinik der inneren Sekretion, 3. Auflage, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 497-499Google Scholar
  25. Leiber B (1995) Aspekte eines polyätiologischen Symptoms: Gynäkomastie. Gyne 15: 237–241Google Scholar
  26. Llort G, Munoz CY, Tuser MP, Guillermo IB, Lluch JR, Bale AE, Franco MA (2002) Low frequency of recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Spain. Hum Mutat 19:307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Magro G, Gurrera A, Scavo N, Lanzafame S, Bisceglia M (2002) Fibromatosis of the breast: a clinical, radiological and pathological study of 6 cases. Pathologica 94:238–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mcleod DG (2002) Emerging role of adjuvant hormonal therapy. Urology 60 [3 Suppl 1]:13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McLeod DG, Iversen P (2000) Gynecomastia in patients with prostate cancer: a review of treatment options. Urology 55:713–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Merkle E, Muller M, Vogel J, Klatt S, Gorich J, Beger HG, Brambs HJ (1996) Clinical relevance of mammography in men. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 164:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Milazzo G, Yip CC, Maddux BA, Vigneri R, Goldfine ID (1992) Highaffinity insulin binding to an atypical insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in human breast cancer cells. J Clin Invest 89:899–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Niewöhner CB, Nuttall RQ (1984) Gynecomastia in a hospitalized male population. Am J Med 77:633–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Hanlon DM, Kent P, Kerin MJ, Given HF (1995) Unilateral breast masses in men over 40: a diagnostic dilemma. Am J Surg 825:170:24–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Olsson H, Bladstrom A, Alm P (2002) Male gynecomastia and risk for malignant tumors-a cohort study. BMC Cancer 2:26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rohrich RJ, Ha RY, Kenkel JM, Adams WP Jr (2003) Classification and management of gynecomastia: defining the role of ultrasound-assisted liposuction. Plast Reconstr Surg 111:909–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Satoh T, Munakata H, Fujita K, Itoh S, Itoh S, Kamataki T, Yoshizawa I (2003) Studies on the interactions between drug and estrogen. II. On the inhibitory effect of 29 drugs reported to induce gynecomastia on the oxidation of estradiol at C-2 or C-17. Biol Pharm Bull 25:695–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Scheike O, Visfeldt J, Petersen B (1973) Male breast cancer. 4. Gynecomastia in patients with breast cancer. Arch Path Microbiol Scand A 81:359–365Google Scholar
  38. Schinina V, Busi Rizzi E, Zaccarelli M, Carvelli C, Bibbolino C (2002) Gynecomastia in male HIV patients MRI and US findings. Clin Imaging 25:309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seibel V, Müller HH, Krause W (1998) Die Inzidenz der Gynäkomastie bei dermatologischen Patienten. Hautarzt 49:382–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shozu M, Sebastia S, Takayama K, Wei-Tong Hsu, Schultz RA, Neely K, Bryant M, Bulun SE (2003) Estrogen excess associated with novel gain-of function mutation affecting the aromatase gene. New Engl J Med 348:1855–1865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Siddiqui MT, Zakowski MF, Ashfaq R, Ali SZ (2002) Breast masses in males: multi-institutional experience on fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 25:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tyrrell CJ, Payne H, Tammela TL, Bakke A, Lodding P, Goedhals L, Van Erps P, Boon T, Van De Beek C, Andersson SO, Morris T, Carroll K (2004) Prophylactic breast irradiation with a single dose of electron beam radiotherapy (10 Gy) significantly reduces the incidence of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:476–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Vesoulis Z, Kashkari S (1998) Fine needle aspiration of secretory breast carcinoma resembling lactational changes. A case report. Acta Cytol 42:1032–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Vetto J, Schmidt W, Pommier R, DiTomasso J, Eppich H, Wood W, Moseson D (1998) Accurate and cost-effective evaluation of breast masses in males. Am J Surg 175:383–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Volpe CM, Raffetto JD, Collure DW, Hoover EL, Doerr RJ (1999) Unilateral male breast masses: cancer risk and their evaluation and management. Am Surg 65:250–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Westenend PJ, Jobse C (2002) Evaluation of fine-needle aspiration cytology of breast masses in males. Cancer 95:101–104Google Scholar
  47. Williams MJ (1963) Gynecomastia. Its incidence, recognition and host characterization in 447 autopsy cases. Am J Med 34:103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yang WT, Whitman GJ, Yuen EH, Tse GM, Stelling CB (2001) Sonographic features of primary breast cancer in men. AJR Am J Roentgenol 175:413–416Google Scholar
  49. Zimmerman RL, Fogt F, Cronin D, Lynch R (2000) Cytologic atypia in a 53-year-old man with finasteride-induced gynecomastia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 124:625–627PubMedGoogle Scholar

Bibliografia

  1. Bayramgurler D, Bilen N, Apaydin R, Ercin C (2002) Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola: treatment of two patients with topical calcipotriol. J Am Acad Dermatol 45:131–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beer GM, Budi S, Seifert B, Morgenthaler W, Infanger M, Meyer VE (2001) Configuration and localization of the nipple-areola complex in men. Plast Reconstr Surg 108:1947–1952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Betti R, Martino P, Moneghini L, Vergani R, Tolomio E, Crosti C (2003) Basal cell carcinomas of the areola-nipple complex: case reports and review of the literature. J Dermatol 30:822–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blum A, Roehm S (2003) Accessory nipple looks like dermatofibroma in dermoscopy. Arch Dermatol 139:948–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodnar M, Miller OF 3rd, Tyler W (1999) Paget’s disease of the male breast associated with intraductal carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 40:829–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Camacho FM, Moreno-Gimenez JC, Garcia-Hernandez MJ (1998) Is aberrant mammary tissue a marker for chronic alcoholism or kidneyurinary tract malformations? Dermatology 197:132–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cerroni L, Hofler G, Back B, Wolf P, Maier G, Kerl H (2002) Specific cutaneous infiltrates of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL) at sites typical for Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Cutan Pathol 29:142–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chao C, Edwards MJ, Wolfson S, Sewell C, Edwards D, McMasters KM (2003) Paget’s disease of the male breast: an unusual case of dermal invasion. Breast J 9:254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Desai DC, Brennan EJ Jr, Carp NZ (1996) male breast. Am Surg 62:1068–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Elsner E, Thewes M, Worret WI (1998) Guess What! Idiopathic hyperkeratosis and papillomatosis areolae mammae. Eur J Dermatol 8:131–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gartmann H, Steigleder GK (1975) Inguinale Pomaden-Kruste der Säuglinge. Z Hautkr 50:667–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gissler S, Heininger U (2002) Borrelia lymphocytoma (“lymphadenosis benigna cutis”). Arch Dis Child 87:12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayes R, Cummings B, Miller RA, Guha AK (2000) Male disease of the breast. J Cutan Med Surg 4:208–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Holloway KB, Ramos-Caro FA, Flowers FP (1997) Paget’s disease of the breast in a man with neurofibromatosis. Int J Dermatol 35:609–611Google Scholar
  15. Inoue S, Kunitomo K, Okamoto H, Fujii H, Matsumoto Y (2003) A case of male noninvasive intracystic papillary carcinoma forming a tumor in the nipple duct. Breast Cancer 10:85–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jacobs VR, Golombeck K, Jonat W, Kiechle M (2003) Mastitis nonpuerperalis after nipple piercing: time to act. Int J Fertil Womens Med 48:226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kapila K, Verma K (2003) Cytology of nipple discharge in florid gynecomastia. Acta Cytol 47:36–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Krisp A, Krause W (2003) Areolar sebaceous hyperplasia. Acta Derm Venereol 83:61–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kubota Y, Koga T, Nakayama J, Kiryu H (2000) Naevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola in a man. Br J Dermatol 142:382–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liebau J, Machens HG, Berger A (1998) Gynecomastia of the male nipple. Ann Plast Surg 40:678–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lundquist K, Kohler S, Rouse RV (1999) Intraepidermal cytokeratin 7 expression is not restricted to Paget cells but is also seen in Toker cells and Merkel cells. Am J Surg Pathol 23:212–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Menet E, Vabres P, Brecheteau P, Bonneau-Herve F, Duport G, Levillain P, Larregue M, Babin P (2001) Pigmented Paget’s disease of the male nipple. Ann Dermatol Venereol 128:649–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitxelena J, Raton JA, Bilbao I, Diaz-Perez JL (1999) Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the areola in men: response to cryotherapy. Dermatology; 199:73–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Murphy TP, Ehrlichman RJ, Seckel BR (1994) Nipple placement in simple mastectomy with free nipple grafting for severe gynecomastia. Plast Reconstr Surg 94:818–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nakamura S, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Takahashi H, Hashimoto Y, Yokoo H, Iizuka H (2001) Pigmented Paget’s disease of the male breast: report of a case. Dermatology 202:134–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Neuhausen SL, Godwin AK, Gershoni-Baruch R, Schubert E, Garber J, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Olah E, Csokay B, Serova O, Lalloo F, Osorio A, Stratton M, Offit K, Boyd J, Caligo MA, Scott RJ, Schofield A, Teugels E, Schwab M, Cannon-Albright L, Bishop T, Easton D, Benitez J, King MC, Goldgar D et al (1998) Haplotype and phenotype analysis of nine recurrent BRCA2 mutations in 111 families: results of an international study. Am J Hum Genet 62:1381–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. O’Sullivan ST, McGreal GT, Lyons A, Burke L, Geoghegan JG, Brady MP (1994) Paget’s disease of the breast in aman without underlying breast carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 47:851–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ottini L, Masala G, D’Amico C, Mancini B, Saieva C, Aceto G, Gestri D, Vezzosi V, Falchetti M, De Marco M, Paglierani M, Cama A, Bianchi S, Mariani-Costantini R, Palli D (2003) BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and tumor characteristics in male breast cancer: a population-based study in Italy. Cancer Res 63:342–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ottuso P (2002) The dermatologist’s role in diagnosing a rare disease — male breast cancer. Cutis 69:99–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Persichetti P, Berloco M, Casadei RM, Marangi GF, Di Lella F, Nobili AM (2001) Gynecomastia and the complete circumareolar approach in the surgical management of skin redundancy. Plast Reconstr Surg 107:948–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Poulain JF, Courtade S, Carmi E, Chatelain D, Denoeux JP, Lok C (2002) Genital leiomyomas of the male nipple: two cases (in francese). Ann Dermatol Venereol 129:1392–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Raton JA, Bilbao I, Gardeazabal J, Alvarez S, Vicente JM, Gonzalez R, Mitxelena J, Diaz-Perez JL (1998) Skin involvement in male breast carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 134:517–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shertz WT, Balogh K (1986) Metastasizing basal cell carcinoma of the nipple. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110:761–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Spence RJ (1992) Bilateral reconstruction of the male nipple. Ann Plast Surg 28:288–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Takeuchi T, Komatsuzaki M, Minesaki Y, Yokoi K, Kamide R, Niimura M, Yamada T (1999) Paget’s disease arising near a male areola without an underlying carcinoma. J Dermatol 25:248–252Google Scholar
  36. Tegner E, Bjornberg A (2003) Erythroderma with sparing around the nipples. Acta Derm Venereol 83:236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Urbani CE, Betti R (1996a) Accessory mammary tissue associated with congenital and hereditary nephrourinary malformations. Int J Dermatol 35:349–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Urbani CE, Betti R (1996b) Sporadic unilateral intra-areolar polythelia. Report of an additional case and review of the literature. Acta Derm Venereol 75:156Google Scholar
  39. Velasco M, Ubeda B, Autonell F, Serra C (1995) Leiomyoma of the male areola infiltrating the breast tissue. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:511–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Zannolli R, Mostardini R, Matera M, Pucci L, Gelb BD, Morgese G (2000) Char syndrome: an additional family with polythelia, a new finding. Am J Med Genet 95:201–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Bibliografia

  1. Cimmino VM, Degnim AC, Sabel MS, Diehl KM, Newman LA, Chang AE (2004) Efficicy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer. J Surg Oncol 86:74–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cutuli B, Lacroze M, Dilhuydy JM, Velten M, De Lafontan B, Marchal C, Resbeut M, Graic Y, Campana F, Moncho-Bernier V et al (1995) Male breast cancer: results of the treatments and prognostic factors in 397 cases. Eur J Cancer 31:1960–1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dixon JM, Sainsbury JRC, Rodger A (2000) Breast cancer: treatment of elderly patients and uncommon conditions. In: Dixon JM (ed) ABC of breast diseases (2nd edn.) BMJ Publishing Group, London, pp 50–54Google Scholar
  4. Giordano SH, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN (2002) Breast cancer in men. Ann Intern Med 137:678–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Giordano SH, Valero V, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN (2002) Efficacy of anastrozole in male breast cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 25:235–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goss PE, Reid C, Pintilie M, Lim R, Miller N (1999) Male breast carcinoma: A review of 229 patients who presented to the Princess Margaret hospital during 40 years 1955–1996. Cancer 85:629–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guinee VF, Olsson H, Moller T, Shallenberger RC, van den Blink JW, Peter Z, Durand M, Dische S, Cleton FJ, Zewuster R et al. (1993) The prognosis of breast cancer in males. A report of 335 cases. Cancer 71:154–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson KC, Pan S, Mao Y (2002) Risk factors for male breast cancer in Canada, 1994–1998. Eur J Cancer Prev 11:253–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Levi F, Lucchini F, La Vecchia C (2002) Epidemiology of male breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 11:315–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Memon MA, Donohue JH (1997) Male breast cancer. Br J Surg 84:433–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moreda Anelli TF, Anelli A, Tran KN, Lebwohl DE, Borgen PI (1994) Tamoxifen administration is associated with a high rate of treatment-limiting symptoms in male breast cancer patients. Cancer 74:74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Osborne CK (1998) Tamoxifen in the treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 339:1609–1618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Patel HZ, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN (1989) Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in male breast cancer. Cancer 64:1583–1585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ribeiro G, Swindell R (1992) Adjuvant tamoxifen for male breast cancer. Br J Cancer 65:252–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ribeiro G, Swindell R, Harris M, Banerjee S, Cramer A (1996) A review of the management of the male breast carcinoma based on an analysis of 420 treated cases. Breast 5:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schuchardt U, Seegenschmiedt MH, Kirschner MH, Renner H, Sauer R (1996) Adjuvant radiotherapy for breast carcinoma in men: A 20-year clinical experience. Am J Clin Oncol 19:330–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vetto J, Schmidt W, Pommier R, DiTomasso J, Eppich H, Wood W, Moseson D (1998) Am J Surg 175:383–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Westenend PJ (2003) Core needle biopsy in male breast lesions. J Clin Pathol 56:863–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Willsher PC, Leach IH, Ellis IO, Bell JA, Elston CW, Bourke JB, Blamey RW, Robertson JF (1997) Male breast cancer: pathological and immunohistochemical features. Anticancer Res 17:2335–2338PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Krause
    • 1
  • P. S. H. Soon
    • 2
  • J. Michael Dixon
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Andrology and VenerologyUniversity Hospital, Philipp UniversityMarburgGermany
  2. 2.Edinburgh Breast UnitWestern General HospitalEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations