Advertisement

Andrologia: definizione, aspetti clinici e prevalenza

  • Wolf-Bernhard Schill
  • Frank Comhaire
  • Timothy B. Hargreave

Riassunto

L’andrologia è una nuova branca medica multidisciplinare, il cui nome deriva dalla parola greca «andros», che tratta i problemi dei soggetti di sesso maschile, con un’attenzione particolare alla fisiologia e alla fisiopatologia delle funzioni riproduttive maschili. Di conseguenza, l’interesse clinico principale è rappresentato dalla diagnosi e dal trattamento dei disturbi della fertilità maschile. L’andrologia è, dunque, l’equivalente maschile della ginecologia e tratta le patologie degli organi riproduttivi maschili. In alcuni stati e nazioni, è strettamente correlata con i centri di fecondazione in vitro. Secondo la definizione dell’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità (World Health Organization, WHO), l’andrologia tratta tutti gli aspetti della salute riproduttiva maschile.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliografia

  1. Adam W (1986) Where stands andrology today? Retrospection and perspectives (in tedesco) Hautarzt 37:472–475Google Scholar
  2. Amelar RD, Dubin L, Walsh PC (1977) Male infertility. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  3. Bruckert E (1991) How frequent is unintentional childlessness in Germany? Andrologia 23:245–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Comhaire FH (1996) Male infertility. Clinical investigations, cause evaluation and treatment. Chapman and Hall Medical, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Dunson DB, Baird DD, Colombo B (2004) Increased infertility with age in men and women. Obstet Gynecol 103:51–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Eliasson R (1971) Standards for investigation of human semen. Andrologie 3:49–64Google Scholar
  7. European Academy of Andrology (2001) Membership list 2001, statutes, andrology centres. Int J Androl 24, Suppl 1Google Scholar
  8. Hellinga G (1957) Classification of male hypogonadism. Acta Endocrinol 31:148Google Scholar
  9. Hellinga G (1959) Analysis of the seminal picture in the etiologic diagnosis of seminal pathology (Dutch). Ned Tijdschr Verloskd Gynaecol 50:267–284Google Scholar
  10. Hellinga G (1976) Clinical andrology. William Heinemann Medical, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Hull MG, Glazener CM, Kelly NJ, Conway DI, Foster PA, Hinton RA, Coulson C, Lambert PA, Watt EM, Desai KM (1985) Population study of causes, treatment and outcome of infertility. Br Med J 291:1693–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Insler V, Lunenfeld B (1986) Infertility: male and female. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  13. Jequier AM (1991) Edward Martin (1859–1938). The founding father of modern clinical andrology. Int J Androl 14:1–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jequier AM (2004) Clinical andrology-still a major problem in the treatment of infertility. Hum Reprod 19:1245–1249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Joel CA (1953) Studies an human semen (in tedesco). Schwabe, BaleGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelami A (1980) Atlas of operative andrology. Selected operations on male genitalia and their accessory glands. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  17. Macleod J (1951) Semen quality in 1000 men of known fertility and in 800 cases of infertile marriage. Fertil Steril 2:115–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Macleod J, Gold RZ (1951a) The male factor in fertility and infertility. II. Spermatozoon counts in 1000 men of known fertility and in 1000 cases of infertile marriage. J Urol 66:436–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Macleod J, Gold RZ (1951b) The male factor in fertility and infertility. III. An analysis of motile activity in the spermatozoa of 1000 fertile men and 1000 men in infertile marriage. Fertil Steril 2:187–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Macleod J, Gold RZ (1951c) The male factor in fertility and infertility. VI. Sperm morphology in fertile and infertile marriage. Fertil Steril 2:394–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Macleod J, Pazianos A, Ray BS (1964) Restoration of human spermatogenesis by menopausal gonadotrophins. Lancet 1:1196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mann T (1964) The biochemistry of semen and of the male reproductive tract. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Mann T, Lutwak-Mann C (1981) Male reproductive function and semen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Niemi M (1987) Andrology as a speciality — its origin. J Androl 8:201–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Nieschlag E, Behre HM (2000) Andrology. Male reproductive health and dysfunction 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Prins GS, Bremner W (2004) The 25th volume: President’s message: Andrology in the 20th century: a commentary on our progress during the past 25 years. J Androl 25:435–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Robaire B, Chemes H, Morales CR (2001) Andrology in the 21st century. Proceedings of the VIIth International Congress of Andrology, Montreal, Canada. Medimond, Englewood, N.J.Google Scholar
  28. Rosemberg E, Paulsen CA (1970) The human testis. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Rowe PJ, Comhaire FH, Hargreave TB, Mellows HJ (1993, 2000) WHO manual for the standardized investigation and diagnosis of the infertile couple. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Rümke P (1965) Autospermagglutinins: a cause of infertility in men. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1234:696–701Google Scholar
  31. Rümke P (1970) Sperm antibodies and their action upon human spermatozoa. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 118:525–528Google Scholar
  32. Rümke P, Hellinga G (1959) Autoantibodies against spermatozoa in sterile men. Am J Clin Pathol 32:357–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schirren C (1985) Andrology: origin and development of a special discipline in medicine. Andrologia 17:117–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Schirren C (1989) History of andrology within dermatology (in tedesco). Andrologia 21 [Suppl 1]Google Scholar
  35. Schoysman R (1961) Exploration and physiological treatment of a case of male infertility (in francese). Bull Soc R Belge Gynecol Obstet 31:445–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Schoysman R (1964) Preliminary studies of the treatment of average oligospermia by human gonadotropins extracted from the urine of menopausal women (H.M.G.) (in francese). Bull Soc R Belge Gynecol Obstet 34:399–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Schoysman R (1968) Creation of an artificial spermatocele in agenesis of the deferent duct (in francese). Bull Soc R Belge Gynecol Obstet 38:307–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Schuermann H, Doepfmer R (1960) Fertility disturbances in man (in tedesco) In: Jadassohn J (ed) Handbook of skin and venereal diseases. Supplementum VI/3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Steinberger A, Steinberger E (1970) In vitro growth and development of mammalian testes. In: Johnson AD, Gomes WR, Vandemark NL (eds) The testis, vol II. Academic, New York, pp 363–391Google Scholar
  40. Steinberger E (1971) Hormonal control of mammalian spermatogenesis. Physiol Rev 51:1Google Scholar
  41. Templeton AA (1992) The epidemiology of infertility. In: Templeton AA, Drife JO (eds) Infertility. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 23–32Google Scholar
  42. Tonutti E, Weller O, Schuchardt E, Heinke E (1960) The male gonad structure, function, clinic — main features of andrology (in tedesco). Georg Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  43. Tulloch WS (1953) Testicular biopsy: indications and technique. Proc R Soc Med 46:838–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Waites GMH, Frick J Baker GWH (1997) Current advances in andrology. Proceedings of the VI International Congress of Andrology, Salzburg, Austria. Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  45. Whitfield HN, Hendry WF, Kirby RS, Duckett JW (1998) Textbook of genitourinary surgery, 2nd edn, vol 1, 2. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. World Health Organization (1999) WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolf-Bernhard Schill
    • 1
  • Frank Comhaire
    • 2
  • Timothy B. Hargreave
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre of Dermatology and Andrology, Justus LiebigUniversity GiessenGiessenGermany
  2. 2.Centre for Medical and Urological Andrology and Reproductive EndocrinologyUniversity Hospital GhentGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Department of OncologyEdinburgh University, Human Genetics Building, Western General HospitalEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations