Tossina botulinica

  • Maurizio Osio
  • Caterina Nascimbene
  • Francesco Muscia
  • Enrico Mailland

Riassunto

Il trattamento iniettivo con tossina botulinica (BTX) è da anni utilizzato in molte patologie neurologiche ed è impiegato sempre più estesamente. La tossina è prodotta dal batterio Gram positivo sporigeno Clostridium botulinum ed è liberata all’esterno in seguito ad autolisi batterica. La tossina fa parte di un complesso comprendente una serie di proteine accessorie che conferiscono resistenza alla proteolisi e alla denaturazione provocata da temperatura, solventi e pH acido. Se ingerito, il complesso viene sciolto dal pH alcalino intestinale, permettendo l’assorbimento, la diffusione sistemica per via ematica e infine lo sviluppo di botulismo. Sono stati identificati sette diversi sierotipi di BTX (A−G): i sierotipi A, B ed E sono quelli principalmente associati alla patologia umana. La tossina è prodotta come catena polipeptidica (150 kD) e in seguito tagliata da proteasi batteriche per formare un dimero legato da un ponte disolfuro.

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Letture consigliate

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Articoli di revisione

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurizio Osio
    • 1
  • Caterina Nascimbene
    • 1
  • Francesco Muscia
    • 2
  • Enrico Mailland
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinica NeurologicaUniversità degli Studi di Milano Azienda Ospedaliera “L. Sacco”Milano
  2. 2.Unità Operativa di NeurologiaEnte Ospedaliero “Valduce”Como

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