• Archana Singh
Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)


This chapter details the emergence and development of social entrepreneurship. It discusses its relevance in providing sustainable solutions to emerging social problems and creating a social impact. It also explores the current status of socio-economic development of India and discusses the major social problems and the role of different actors involved in addressing these problems. It then moves on to discussing the importance of social entrepreneurship in the context of India, provides the rationale and builds the context for conducting the study. Lastly, it briefly discusses the research design that guided my study.


  1. Acharya A, Ranson MK (2005) Health care financing for the poor: community-based health insurance schemes in Gujarat. Econ Polit Wkly 17:4141–4150Google Scholar
  2. Aggarwal A (2012) India’s services sector: gateway to development? Econ Polit Wkly XLVII(26 & 27):119–123Google Scholar
  3. Austin JA, Stevenson H, Wei-Skillern J (2006) Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both? Entrep Theory Pract 30(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayres L, Kavanaugh K, Knafl K (2003) Within-case and across-case approaches to qualitative data analysis. Qual Health Res 13(6):871–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bannerjee A (2011) Review of the book State of India’s livelihood report 2010 by Datta S, Sharma V. South Asia Econ J 12(2):339–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barowalia A (2010) Public private partnership in social sectors for harmonised development in India. OIDA Int J Sustain Dev 1(4):29–37Google Scholar
  7. Bornstein D (2005) How to change the world: social entrepreneurs and the power of new ideas. Penguin Books, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Boschee J (2006) Social entrepreneurship: the promise and the perils. In: Nicholls A (ed) Social entrepreneurship: new models of sustainable change. Oxford, New York, p 356–390Google Scholar
  9. Bradley SW, McMullen JS, Artz K et al (2012) Capital is not enough: innovation in developing economies. J Manag Stud 49(4):685–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Business Portal of India (2013) Indian economy. Accessed 14 June 2013
  11. Census of India (2011) Government of India, New Delhi, Ministry of Home Affairs, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Accessed 15 March 2011
  12. Chambers R (1995) Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? Environ Urban 7(1):173–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christie MJ, Honig B (2006) Social entrepreneurship: new research findings. J World Bus 41:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Commission on the Private Sector and Development (2004) Unleashing entrepreneurship: making business work for the poor. UNDP, New York. Accessed 24 March 2013
  15. D’Cruz P, Bharat S (2001) Which way to turn? Inadequacies in the health care system in India. J Health Manag 3(1):85–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dees JG (1998) The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Accessed 20 Oct 2008
  17. Dees JG (2007) Taking social entrepreneurship seriously. Society 44(3):24–31Google Scholar
  18. Dees JG, Anderson BB (2003) For-profit social ventures. Int J Entrep Educ Spec Issue Soc Entrep 2:1–26Google Scholar
  19. Dees JG, Emerson J, Economy P (2001) Enterprising nonprofits: a toolkit for social entrepreneurs. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Dharmarajan S (2001) NGOs as prime movers: sectoral action for social development. Kanishka Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  21. Domenico MD, Haugh H, Tracey P (2010) Social bricolage: theorising social value creation in social enterprise. Entrep Theory Pract 34(4):681–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dubey M (2010) The right of children to free and compulsory education act, 2009: the story of a missed opportunity. Soc Change 40(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Economic Survey Report of India (2010–11). Accessed 16 March 2013
  24. Eisenhardt K (1989) Building theories from case study research. Acad Manag Rev 14(4):488–511Google Scholar
  25. Elkington J, Hartigan P (2008) The power of unreasonable people: how social entrepreneurs create markets that change the world. Harvard Business Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler A (2000) NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation? Third World Q 21(4):637–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gartner WB (1985) A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Acad Manag Rev 10(4):696–706Google Scholar
  28. Gartner WB (1988) “Who is an entrepreneur?” is the wrong question. Entrepr Theory Pract 13(4):47–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gautam R (2010) Role of NGOs in socio-economic development. Sublime Publications, JaipurGoogle Scholar
  30. Ghosh B (2009) NGOs, civil society and social reconstruction in contemporary India. J Dev Soc 25(2):229–252Google Scholar
  31. Gore MS (2003) Social development: challenges faced in an unequal and plural society. Rawat Publications, JaipurGoogle Scholar
  32. Grenier P (2006) Social entrepreneurship: agency in a globalising world. In: Nicholls A (ed) Social entrepreneurship: new models of sustainable change. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 119–142Google Scholar
  33. Ianchovichina E, Lundstrom S (2009) Inclusive growth analytics. Economic Policy and Debt Department Policy Research Working Paper Series No. 4851, World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  34. Jain H (2010) Health sector reforms and health poverty. Soc Change 40(1):61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jha P (2007) Guaranteeing elementary education: a note on policy and provisioning in contemporary India. J South Asian Dev 2(1):75–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jha RK (2012) Managing non-profit organisations. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnson S (2000). Literature review on social entrepreneurship. Accessed 14 July 2008
  38. Koonan S, Sampat P (2012) Delhi water supply reforms: Public-private partnerships or privatisation? Economic & Political Weekly XLVII(17):32–39Google Scholar
  39. Kundu S (2010) The case of MCH services. Indian J Gend Stud 17(1):105–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ladusingh L, Pandey A (2013) Health expenditure and impoverishment in India. J Health Manag 15(1):57–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leadbeater C (1997) The rise of social entrepreneur. Demos, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Lepak DP, Smith KG, Taylor MS (2007) Value creation and value capture: a multilevel perspective. Acad Manag Rev 32(1):180–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Light PC (2005) Searching social entrepreneurs: who they might be, where they might be, what they do. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Association for Research on Nonprofit and Voluntary Associations, November 17–18. Accessed 02 Feb 2009
  44. Lundstrom A, Zhou C (2011) Promoting innovation based on social sciences and technologies: the prospect of a social innovation park. Innov-Eur J Soc Sci Res 24(1–2):133–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mair J, Marti I (2006) Social entrepreneurship research: a source of explanation, prediction and delight. J World Bus 41:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin M (2002) Between entrepreneurship and surveillance: an interpretive political economy perspective on the globalising organisation. Entwicklungsethnologie 11(1):83–110Google Scholar
  47. Martin RL, Osberg S (2007) Social entrepreneurship: the case for a definition. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring, 29–39Google Scholar
  48. Meher R (2007) Livelihood, poverty and morbidity: a study on health and socio-economic status of the tribal population in Orissa. J Health Manag 9(3):343–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MoHFW (2009). National Health Accounts, India 2004–05. National Health Accounts Cell, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  50. Mort GS, Weerawardena J, Carnegie K (2003) Social entrepreneurship: towards conceptualisation. Int J Nonprofit and Voluntary Sect Mark 8(1):76–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mukhopadhyay C (2011) Are private investments serving the poor in India? J Infrastruct Dev 3(1):39–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nandraj S (2012) Unregulated and unaccountable: private health providers. Econ Polit Wkly XLVII(4):12–17Google Scholar
  53. Narayan V (2010) The private and the public in school education. Econ Polit Wkly XLV(6):23–26Google Scholar
  54. Nicholls A (ed) (2006) Social entrepreneurship: new models of sustainable change. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Oza AN (1988) Integrated entrepreneurship development programmes: the Indian experience. Econ Polit Wkly 23(22):M73–M79Google Scholar
  56. Rathakrishnan L (2003) Environmental issues and small enterprises. Manag Labour Stud 28(1):21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sandelowski M (1995) Focus on qualitative methods: sample size in qualitative research. Res Nurs Health 18:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Seawright J, Gerring J (2008) Case selection techniques in case study research: a menu of qualitative and quantitative options. Polit Res Q 61(2):294–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sen A (2010) Development as freedom. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  60. Short JC, Moss TW, Lumpkin GT (2009) Research in social entrepreneurship: past contributions and future Opportunities. Strateg Entrep J 3:161–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Siggel E (2010) Poverty alleviation and economic reforms in India. Progr Dev Stud 10(3):247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith BR, Stevens CE (2010) Different types of social entrepreneurship: the role of geography and embeddedness on the measurement and scaling of social value. Entrep Reg Dev 22(6):575–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Strauss A, Corbin J (1998) Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, 2nd edn. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  64. Sud M, VanSandt CV, Baugous AM (2008) Social entrepreneurship: the role of institutions. J Bus Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9939-1 Google Scholar
  65. Tamayo PA (2003) Dying for growth: global inequality and the health of the poor. Rev Radic Polit Econ 35:377–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thomas KT, Vel RS (2011) Private health insurance in India: evaluating emerging business models. J Health Manag 13(4):401–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Topper EF (2008) Social entrepreneur improves literacy in the developing world. New Libr World 109(1):87–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. UNDP (2011) Human Development Report 2011. Sustainability and equity: A better future for all. UNDP, New York. Accessed 23 March 2013
  69. UNICEF (2011) The situation of children in India. Accessed 12 October 2015
  70. UNICEF, WHO, The World Bank (2012) Levels & trends in child malnutrition. Unicef, WHO & The World Bank, USA. Accessed 16 Feb 2013
  71. UNICEF, WHO, The World Bank et al (2012) Levels & trends in child mortality: Report 2012. Unicef, USA. Accessed 27 Jan 2014
  72. United Nations (2011) World population prospects: the 2010 revision, highlights and advance tables. Accessed on October 9, 2012, from
  73. United Nations (2013) World population prospects: the 2012 revision, highlights and advance tables. Accessed 09 July 2013
  74. Varman R (2008) The political economy of markets and development: a case study of health care consumption in the state of Kerala, India. Critical Sociol 34(1):81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Venkatanarayanan S (2015). Economic liberalisation in 1991 and its impact on elementary education in India. SAGE open, April–June, 1–13Google Scholar
  76. Wang J (2012) HRD for societal development: what can we learn from social entrepreneurship in the developing world? Adv Dev Human Res 14(3):305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Welter F (2011) Contextualising entrepreneurship- conceptual challenges and ways forward. Entrepr Theory Pract 35(1):165–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. WHO (2013) World health statistics 2013: a wealth of information on global public health. Accessed 06 June 2013
  79. World Bank (2011). Social protection for a changing India. Volume I. USA: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. Accessed 07 Dec 2011
  80. Yin RK (1993) Applications of case study research. Applied social research methods series, vol 35. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  81. Yin R (2003) Case study research: design and methods, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  82. Yujuico E (2008) Connecting the dots in social entrepreneurship through the capabilities approach. Socio-Econ Rev 6:493–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Social Entrepreneurship, School of Management and Labour StudiesTata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations