Threats to Marine and Estuarine Ecosystems

  • Abhijit Mitra
  • Sufia Zaman


Oceans and estuaries comprise about 70 % of the Earth’s land mass and provide more potential biodiversity for novel products and services than any other ecosystem in the world. Forty percent of the world inhabitants are living along the coastline of the oceans. Marine lives ranging from bacteria to higher forms of lives are sources of micro- and macromolecules required for the advancement of civilization. Despite the vast socio-economic potentials of oceans and estuaries, they are treated as the final receptacle of all wastes generated from anthropogenic activities. In addition, natural hazards like supercyclone, volcanic activities, tectonic movements, etc. are threats of megascale on the marine and estuarine ecosystems. Climate change-related effects like salinity fluctuation, acidification and extreme weather events greatly damage the salt water domain of the planet Earth. People all over the world face the reality of climate variability in different mode and magnitude. More than 530,000 people died as a direct result of almost 15,000 extreme weather events, and losses of more than USD 2.5 trillion (in PPP) occurred from 1993 to 2012 globally. The list of natural disaster is vast, and the magnitude of damage caused by such disasters is difficult to assess with extreme accuracy.


Coral Reef Great Barrier Reef Ocean Acidification Extreme Weather Event Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Mitra
    • 1
  • Sufia Zaman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of OceanographyTechno India UniversityKolkataIndia

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