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Application of Cryogenic Technologies and Somatic Embryogenesis in the Storage and Protection of Valuable Genetic Resources of Ornamental Plants

  • Dariusz KulusEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Cryopreservation is the most safe long-term conservation method of non-orthodox seed species. Somatic embryogenesis, on the other hand, is considered to be the most efficient (micro)propagation technique. By combining in vitro tissue culture techniques with cryoconservation, it is possible to develop highly diverse gene banks on a small surface at reduced costs from cutting down on labor and laboratory consumables. The application of embryonic tissue for storage in liquid nitrogen is very beneficial, especially with endangered species, since it does not require injuring the mother plant. The seeds are very often stored at sub-zero temperatures. Over time also zygotic embryos or their axes of about 100 species and somatic embryos of approximately 40 plant species have been cryopreserved with variable success. The share of ornamental plants, however, is low. The cryopreservation procedures are developed best for somatic embryos. For several species, an attempt to freeze embryogenic callus has been also made. There are even some reports referring to embryogenic potential or metabolic activity growth of proembryogenic masses in some ornamental species observed after freezing. Over time various cryopreservation techniques have been applied. As for seeds, direct immersion in liquid nitrogen or simple air drying is possible. With some species these techniques can be used with embryos. There are also reports on employing slow freezing for embryogenic tissues. Still, the so-called modern methods (e.g., vitrification, droplet vitrification, encapsulation–dehydration) are usually more efficient. The protocols, however, need to be adjusted not only to the individual species but also to single cultivars.

Keywords

Cryopreservation Embryogenic tissue Liquid nitrogen Ornamental plants Somatic embryogenesis 

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ornamental Plants and Vegetable Crops – Laboratory of BiotechnologyUTP University of Technology and Life Sciences in BydgoszczBydgoszczPoland

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