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Acute-Phase Proteins and Responses and Their Application in Clinical Chemistry

  • Waliza Ansar
  • Shyamasree Ghosh
Chapter

Abstract

The host innate responses to immunological stress initiate with a nonspecific response followed by specific responses. Host homeostasis is affected due to injury, infection, surgery, trauma, neoplastic growth, or immunological disorders and is combated by a prominent systemic reaction of the organism known as acute-phase response (APR). At the tissue injury sites and sites of invasion of microbes, a series of tissue responses are itself initiated. The activation of vascular system and inflammatory cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines are the key steps of these responses. These responses are then amplified by the overproduction of cytokines and different inflammatory mediators released in blood circulation. The acute-phase response is also characterized by hepatic secretion of some proteins termed as acute-phase proteins (APP). APR characterized by alteration in blood plasma composition is beneficial to the host in preventing microbial propagation and thus helps in restoring homeostasis. Multifunctional APPs can opsonize the invading microbes and activate the complement system and remove dead cells and free radicals. In this chapter, the changes induced by acute-phase response disruption of host body homeostasis are discussed. In addition, the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic use of APPs in assessing health in animals as well as human patients is also described.

Keywords

Acute phase protein Acute phase response Inflammation Inflammatory mediators Acute inflammation Chronic inflammation Disease biomarker Cytokine 

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© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waliza Ansar
    • 1
  • Shyamasree Ghosh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyBehala CollegeKolkataIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Science EducationSchool of Biological SciencesBhubaneswarIndia

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