Contact Frequency and Contact Duration Based Relay Selection Approach Inside the Local Community in Social Delay Tolerant Network

  • Nikhil N. Gondaliya
  • Dhaval Kathiriya
  • Mehul Shah
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 44)


Social Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) allows mobile devices to exchange the data opportunistically without end-to-end path when they come in contact. As the connectivity is opportunistic so, the routing task becomes very challenging. By investigating the real social network traces, it exhibits that a node tends to meet a certain group of nodes more frequently and regularly compared to other nodes outside their group which forms the local community. There are many social characteristics (e.g. centrality, similarity) of human beings which are exploited to select the appropriate relay node. Many community based routing protocols proposed in the literature which select the relay node as one of the community members or the most central node inside the community. In this paper, we propose two different approaches of the relay selection inside the local community: contact frequency based approach and contact duration based approach. When message carrier and encountered node belongs to the same community of the message’s destination, the relay selection is done based on contact frequency and contact duration of the node with the message’s destination. It is usually inside the social community that people in the same community meet very often and spend more time with only a few members of their community than all other members. To evaluate the performance of our approaches, we choose the real traces from the campus and the conference environment. The simulation result on the real traces shows that the proposed approaches of selecting a relay node outperform better in terms of delivery ratio for the campus environment where as they perform quite similar as an existing scheme in the conference environment.


Community detection Social delay tolerant networks Contact frequency Contact duration 



We would like to thank the authors whose research papers helped us in making this research.


  1. 1.
    Zhu, T., Wang, C., Liu., D.: Commuity roamer: a social based routing algorithm in opportunistic mobile networks. In: Proceedings of 14th International Conference, (ICA3PP 2014), Dalian, China, 24–27 August 2014Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hui, P., Crowcroft, J.: How small labels create big improvements. In: Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOMW 2007), pp. 65–70 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hui, P., Crowcroft, J., Yoneki, E.: Bubble rap: Social-based forwarding in delay tolerant networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 10(11), 1576–1589 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bulut, E., Szymanski, B.K.: Exploiting friendship relations for efficient routing in mobile social networks. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 23(12), 2254–2265 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mtibaa, A., May, M., Diot, C., Ammar, M.: Peoplerank: social opportunistic forwarding. In: Proceedings of the 29th Conference on Information Communications (INFOCOM 2010), pp. 111–115 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hui, P., Yoneki, E., Chan, S.Y., Crowcroft, J.: Distributed community detection in delay tolerant networks. In: Proceedings of 2nd ACM/IEEE International Workshop on Mobility in the Evolving Internet Architecture (MobiArch 2007), pp. 1–8 (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Erramilli, V., Crovella, M.: Forwarding in opportunistic networks with resource constraints. In: Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Workshop on Challenged Networks (CHANTS 08) (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shen, J., Moh, S., Chung, I.: Routing protocols in delay tolerant networks: a comparative survey. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications, p. 1577 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vahdat, A., Becker, D.: Epidemic Routing for Partially-Connected Ad Hoc Networks. Duke University, Durham (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Spyropoulos, T., Psounis, K., Raghavendra, C.S.: Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks. In: Proceedings of the, ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Delay-Tolerant Networking (WDTN 2005), pp. 252–259 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindgren, A., Doria, A., Schelén, O.: Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks. SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 7(3), 19–20 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nelson, M.B., Kravets, R., Encounter-based routing in DTNs. In: Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 846–854 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wei, K., et al.: On social delay-tolerant networking: aggregation, tie detection, and routing. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 99, 1–10 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li, F., Wu, J.: LocalCom: a community-based epidemic forwarding scheme in disruption-tolerant networks. In: IEEE Secon (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keranen, A., Ott, J., Karkkainen, T.: The one simulator for dtn protocol evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques (Simutools 2009), pp. 1–10 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikhil N. Gondaliya
    • 1
  • Dhaval Kathiriya
    • 2
  • Mehul Shah
    • 1
  1. 1.G H Patel College of Engineering and TechnologyGujaratIndia
  2. 2.Information Technology DepartmentAnand Agriculture UniversityAnandIndia

Personalised recommendations