Optimal Probabilistic Cluster Head Selection for Energy Efficiency in WSN

Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 44)


Conventional Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a cluster based routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), which is effective in enhancing lifetime of the nodes thereby increasing the entire network life. The protocol is based on functionalities such as spatially distributed cluster formation, random selection of cluster heads, processing of data locally in the clusters and transmission of aggregated data to the base station (BS). Further, the cluster-head (CH) is selected from the member nodes (MN) from each of the cluster based on remaining energy at the node. In literature, various versions of LEACH with enhanced network life are presented. In this paper, an Efficient LEACH protocol is proposed which includes selection of CH for every round of CH selection based on results on Voronoi tessellations from stochastic geometry and remainant energy in the member node devices. In proposed protocol, a novel method is used to choose the CHs wherein the CHs and member nodes (MNs) of clusters are distributed as two independent homogeneous spatial Poisson Point Processes (PPPs). Probability of selecting the CHs and threshold is derived using results from spatial statistics. The Proposed algorithm selects optimum number of CHs leading to reduction in total energy spent in the network compared to conventional LEACH and other such algorithms. The network life is measured by number of rounds. Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out for performance analysis of LEACH, TEEN and other PPP based protocols. Furthermore, total energy dissipated in the network for each round is fairly constant throughout the network life i.e. distribution of total energy consumption by the network is fairly uniform over the rounds.


Cluster head Energy efficiency LEACH Voronoi cluster 


  1. 1.
    Akyildiz, I., Su, W.: A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(8), 102–114 (August 2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heizelman, W., Chandrakasan, A., Balakrishman, H.: Energy efficient routing protocols for wireless micro sensor networks. In: Proc 33rd HICSS-2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heinzelman, W., Chandrakasan, A., Balakrishnan, H.: An application-specific LEACH protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 1(4), (October 2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vinodh Kumar, S., Ajit Pal.: Assisted-Leach (A-Leach) energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Int. J. Comput. Commun. Eng. 2(4), (July 2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bandyopadhaya, S., Coyle, E.J.: An energy efficient hierarchical clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM, Piscataway, USA. IEEE (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bandyopadhaya, S., Coyle, E.J.: Minimizing communication cost in hierarchically clustered algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Comput. Netw. 44, (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, B., Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Hao, X., Fang, Y.: A clustering algorithm of Cluster-head Optimization for wireless sensor networks based on energy. J. Inf. Comput. Sci. 8(11), 2129–2136 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Manjeshwar, A., Agrawal, D.P.: TEEN: A routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. Int. Parallel Distrib. Proc. Symp. 3, 30189a (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Foss, S.G., Zuyev, S.A.: On a Voronoi aggregative process related to a bivariate poisson process. Adv. Appl. Probab. 28(4), 965–981 (1996)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baccelli, F., Baszczyszyn, B.: Stochastic geometry and wireless networks. Volume I Theory, vol. 3, No 3–4 of Foundations and Trends in Networking. NoW Publishers (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim, K.T., Youn, H.Y.: A stochastic and optimized energy efficient clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: A Research Article in International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. (March 2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trinity College of Engineering and Research (Savitribai Phule Pune University)PuneIndia
  2. 2.CTIF, Department of Electronic SystemsAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations