Energy-Efficient Modified Bellman Ford Algorithm for Grid and Random Network Topologies

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 379)


Energy-efficient routing techniques are required for mobile ad hoc Networks (MANETs) to improve the lifetime of the network. The lifetime of the network depends on the battery capacity of nodes. The link failure due to the battery discharge of node can be avoided by considering the nodes having good residual energy (RE) with less change in their battery capacity. In this paper, the Bellman–Ford algorithm (BFA) is considered to find the shortest path for routing. Bellman–Ford algorithm is modified and the nodes whose change in battery capacity is less than a predefined threshold value are considered for routing to avoid the link failures and to enhance the lifetime of the network. In the proposed modified Bellman–Ford algorithm (MBFA), residual energy (RE) is considered as a metric to find the shortest path. IEEE 802.11 a/g standards using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are considered for simulation. Energy consumed by the radio transceiver, processor, losses in the battery, and DC–DC converter are taken into consideration for energy calculation. The performance of BFA and MBFA for the grid and random network topologies is simulated by considering the network with multiple sources and destinations are compared with and without mobility by assuming various densities, i.e., 15, 30, 45, and 60. The mobility of the node increases the loss of orthogonality among the OFDM subcarriers and results inter carrier interference (ICI). The effect of mobility and network size on throughput, delay, jitters for the grid, and random network topologies using BFA and MBFA are compared. Simulation results show that the performance of proposed MBFA is better compared to BFA.


Bellman ford algorithm Inter carrier interference Modified bellman ford algorithm OFDM Residual energy 


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rama Devi Boddu
    • 1
  • K.  Kishan Rao
    • 2
  • M.  Asha Rani
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of E.C.EKakatiya Institute of Technology and ScienceWarangalIndia
  2. 2.Department of E.C.EVaagdevi College of EngineeringWarangalIndia
  3. 3.Department of E.C.EJawaharlal Nehru Technological UniversityHyderabadIndia

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