Green Synthesis of Polymer Composites/Nanocomposites Using Vegetable Oil

  • Selvaraj Mohana RoopanEmail author
  • Gunabalan Madhumitha
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 75)


Vegetable triglycerides are among the first renewable resources exploited by man primarily in coating applications because their unsaturated varieties polymerize as thin films in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. Nowadays, use of the vegetable oils is spotlight of the chemical industries and as they are using these as a renewable platform for further ability. In order to overcome disadvantages such as poor mechanical properties of polymers from renewable resources, or to offset the high price of synthetic biodegradable polymers, various blends and composites have been developed over the last decade. The progress of blends from three kinds of polymers from renewable resources (1) natural polymers, such as starch, protein, and cellulose; (2) synthetic polymers from natural monomers, such as polylactic acid; and (3) polymers from microbial fermentation. In this chapter we have discussed about the different types of polymer composites obtained from the vegetable oil and applications of the polymer composites.


Vegetable oil Polymer composites Industrial and biomedical application 


  1. Arrakhiz FZ, Achaby ME, Malha M, Bensalah MO, Fassi F, Bouhfid R, Benmoussa K, Qaiss A (2013) Mechanical and thermal properties of natural fibers reinforced polymer composites: doum/low density polyethylene. Mater Des 43:200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baillie C (2004) Green composites: polymer composites and the environment. Woodhead PublishingGoogle Scholar
  3. Bantchev GB, Kenar JA, Biresaw G, Han MG (2009) Free radical addition of butanethiol to vegetable oil double bonds. J Agri Food Chem 57:1282–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnwal BK, Sharma MP (2005) Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils in India. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 9:363–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beauty D, Pronobesh C, Manabendra M, Brigitte V, Niranjan K (2013) Bio-based biodegradable and biocompatible hyperbranched polyurethane: a scaffold for tissue engineering. MacromolBiosci 13:126–139Google Scholar
  6. Belgacem MN, Gandini A (2008) Monomers, polymers and composites from renewable resources. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-08-045316-3Google Scholar
  7. Biermann U, Friedt W, Lang S, Luhs W, Machmuller G, Metzger JO, Klass MR, Schafer HJ, Schneider MP (2000) New syntheses with oils and fats as renewable raw materials for the chemical industry. Angew Chem Int Ed 39:2206–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bussell GW (1974) US Patent, 3,855,163Google Scholar
  9. Cathryn AS, Jeffery YS, Yadong W, William CF, Robert SL, Joseph PV, Tessa AH (2005) Biocompatibility analysis of poly (glycerol sebacate) as a nerve guide material. Biomater 26:5454–5464Google Scholar
  10. Çayl G, Kusefoglu S (2008) Biobasedpolyisocyanates from plant oil triglycerides: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization. J Appl Polym Sci 109:2948–2955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Z, Chisholm BJ, Patani R, Wu JF, Fernando S, Jogodzinski K (2010) Soybased UV-curable thiol-ene coatings. J Coat Technol Res 7:603–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cinita M, Diego M, Kleber RP, Mirta IA, Mirna AM (2014) Nanocomposites with superparamagneticbehavior based on a vegetable oil and magnetite nanoparticles. Euro Poly J 53:90–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cunningham A, Yapp A (1974) US Patent, 3,827,993Google Scholar
  14. Dave AM, Mehta MH, Aminabhavi TM, Kulkarni AR, Soppimath KS (1999) A review on controlled release of nitrogen fertilizers through polymeric membrane devices. Polym-plast technol 38:675–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delara M, Jian Y, Karen YL, Antonio RW, Guillermo AA (2006) Hemocompatibility evaluation of poly(glycerol-sebacate) in vitro for vascular tissue engineering. Biomater 27:4315–4324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dyer JM, Stymme S, Green AG, Carlsson AS (2008) High-value oils from plants. Plant J 54:640–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Force CG, Starr FS (1988) US Patent, 4,740,367Google Scholar
  18. Frederick T, Wallenberger T, Norman E (2004) Natural fibers, plastics and composites. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  19. Friedrich K, Lu Z, Hager AM (1995) Recent advances in polymer composites’ tribology. Wear 190:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gallezot P (2012) Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products. Chem Soc Rev 41:1538–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gerard L, Juan CR, Marina G, Virginia C (2013) Renewable polymeric materials from vegetable oils: a perspective. doi: 10.1016/j.mattod.2013.08.016
  22. Gonzalez-Paz R, Lluch C, Lligadas G, Ronda J, Galia M, Cadiz V (2011) A green approach toward oleic- and undecylenic acid-derived polyurethanes. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 49:2407–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gorkum R, Bouwman E (2005) The oxidative drying of alkyd paint catalyzed by metal complexes. Coord Chem Rev 249:1709–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guner FS, Yagci Y, Erciyes AT (2006) Polymers from triglycerides oils. Prog Poly Sci 31:633–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hodakowski LE, Osborn CL, Harris EB (1975) US Patent, 4,119,640Google Scholar
  26. Hojabri L, Kong X, Narine SS (2009) Fatty acid-derived diisocyanate and biobased polyurethane produced from vegetable oil: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization. Biomacromolecules 10:884–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hojabri L, Kong X, Narine SS (2010a) Novel long chain unsaturated diisocyanate from fatty acid: synthesis, characterization, and application in bio-based polyurethane. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48:3302–3310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hojabri L, Kong X, Narine SS (2010b) Functional thermoplastics from linear diols and diisocyanates produced entirely from renewable lipid sources. Biomacromolecules 11:911–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johannes TP, Derksen F, Petrus C, Peter K (1996) Renewable resources in coatings technology: a review. Progress Org Coat 27:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson RW, Fritz EE (1989) Fatty acids in industry. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Kymakis E, Alexandou I, Amaratunga GAG (2002) Single- walled carbon nanotube- polymer composites: electrical optical and structural investigations. Synth Met 127:50–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lamba NM, Woodhouse KA, Cooper SL (1998) Polyurethanes in biomedical applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  33. Lin M-F, Thakur VK, Tan EJ, Lee PS (2011a) Dopant induced hollow BaTiO3 nanostructures for application in high performance capacitors. J Mater Chem 21:16500–16504Google Scholar
  34. Lin M-F, Thakur VK, Tan EJ, Lee PS (2011b) Surface functionalization of BaTiO3 nanoparticles and improved electrical properties of BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride composite. RSC Adv 1:576–578Google Scholar
  35. Lluch C, Ronda JC, Galia M, Lligadas G, Cadiz V (2010) Rapid approach to biobased telechelics through two one-pot thiol—ene click reactions. Bio mac mol 11:1646–1653Google Scholar
  36. Lu Y, Larock RC (2009) Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications. Chem Sus Chem 2:136–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meier MAR, Metzger JO, Schubert US (2007) Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science. Chem Sus Rev 36:1788–1802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mikitaev A, Alexey KR, Elena GN (2009) Polymer nanocomposites: variety of structural forms and applications. Nova Science Publishers, 319 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Mohammad YS, Sharif A (2012) Waterborne vegetable oil epoxy coatings: Preparation and characterization. Prog Org Coat 75:248–252Google Scholar
  40. More AS, Lebarbé T, Maisonneuve L, Gadenne B, Alfos C, Cramail H (2013) Novel fatty acid based di-isocyanates towards the synthesis of thermoplastic polyurethanes. Eur Polym J 49:823–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mosiewicki MA, Aranguren MI (2013) A short review on novel biocomposites based on plant oil Precursors. Eur Polym J 44:1243–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Norris FA (1996) Extraction of fats and oils. Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products. vol 2. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Okada A, Usuki A (1995) The chemistry of polymer-clay hybrids. Mat Sci Engg C3:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reis JML, Mota EP (2014) Mechanical behaviour of piassava fiber reinforced castor oil polymer mortars. Comp Strut 111:468–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Salunkhe DK, Chavan JK, Adsule RN, Kadam SS (1992) World oilseeds: chemistry, technology and utilization. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Seniha GN, Yusuf Y, Tuncer E (2014) Polymers from triglyceride oils. Sep Purify Technol 133:260–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sharma V, Kundu PP (2006) Addition polymers from natural oils—a review. Prog Poly Sci 31:983–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shida M, Lijing S, Ping W, Ruina L, Zhiguo S, Songping Z (2012) Soybean oil-based polyurethane networks as candidate biomaterials: Synthesis and biocompatibility. Euro J Lipid Sci Tech 114:1165–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shida M, Ping W, Zhiguo S, Songping Z (2014) Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials. Acta Biomater 10:1692–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2008a) Saccaharum cilliare fiber reinforced polymer composites. E-J Chem 5(4):782–791Google Scholar
  51. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2008b) Fabrication and study of lignocellulosic hibiscus sabdariffa fiber reinforced polymer composites. Bioresources 3:1173–1186Google Scholar
  52. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2008c) Synthesis and characterization of pine needles reinforced rf matrix based biocomposites. E-J Chem 5:1055–1062Google Scholar
  53. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2009a) Fabrication and characterization of H. Sabdariffa fiber-reinforced green polymer composites. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 48:482–487Google Scholar
  54. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2009b) Fabrication and characterization of S. Cilliare fibre reinforced polymer composites. Bull Mater Sci 32:49–58Google Scholar
  55. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2009c) Synthesis, characterisation and analysis of hibiscus sabdariffa fibre reinforced polymer matrix based composites. Polym Polym Compos 17:189–194Google Scholar
  56. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2009d) Grewia optiva fiber reinforced novel, low cost polymer composites. J Chem 6:71–76Google Scholar
  57. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2009e) Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of hibiscus sabdariffa fiber/polymer composite. Int J Polym Mater 58:217–228Google Scholar
  58. Singha A S, Thakur VK (2010a) Mechanical, morphological, and thermal characterization of compression-molded polymer biocomposites. Int J Polym Anal Charact 15(2):87–97Google Scholar
  59. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2010b) Synthesis, characterization and study of pine needles reinforced polymer matrix based composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 29:700–709Google Scholar
  60. Singha AS, Thakur VK, Mehta IK, Shama A, Khanna AJ, Rana RK, Rana AK (2009) Surface-modified hibiscus sabdariffa fibers: physicochemical, thermal, and morphological properties evaluation. Int J Polym Anal Charact 14(8):695–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sinha VR, Kumria R (2001) Polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery. Int J Pharm 224:19–38Google Scholar
  62. Stephen R, William LN, Santiago R, Sunita S, Jing Y, Henry K, Robert L, Michael JY (2009) Engineering retinal progenitor cell and scrollable poly (glycerol-sebacate) composites for expansion and subretinal transplantation. Biomater 30:3405–3414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014a) Recent advances in graft copolymerization and applications of chitosan: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:2637–2652Google Scholar
  64. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014b) Recent trends in hydrogels based on psyllium polysaccharide: a review. J Cleaner Prod 82:1–15Google Scholar
  65. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014c) Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites. Carbohydr Polym 109:102–117Google Scholar
  66. Thakur VK, Singha AS, Kaur I, Nagarajarao RP, Liping Y (2010a) Silane functionalization of Saccaharum cilliare fibers: thermal, morphological, and physicochemical study. Int J Polym Anal Charact 15(7):397–414Google Scholar
  67. Thakur VK, Singha AS, Mehta I K (2010b) Renewable resource-based green polymer composites: analysis and characterization. Int J Polym Anal Charact 15(3):137–146Google Scholar
  68. Thakur VK, Singha AS, Thakur MK (2012a) In air graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate onto natural cellulosic polymers. Int J Polym Anal Charact 17(1):48–60Google Scholar
  69. Thakur VK, Singha AS, Thakur MK (2012b) Surface modification of natural polymers to impart low water absorbency. Int J Polym Anal Charact 17:133–143Google Scholar
  70. Thakur VK, Singha AS, Thakur MK (2012c) Biopolymers based green composites: mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical characterization. J Polym Environ 20:412–421Google Scholar
  71. Thakur VK, Singha AS, Thakur MK (2012d) Graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate onto cellulosic biofibers: synthesis, characterization and applications. J Polym Environ 20:164–174Google Scholar
  72. Thakur VK, Thunga M, Madbouly SA, Kessler MR (2014a) PMMA-g-SOY as a sustainable novel dielectric material. RSC Adv 4:18240–18249Google Scholar
  73. Thakur VK, Grewell D, Thunga M, Kessler MR (2014b) Novel composites from eco-friendly soy flour/SBS triblock copolymer. Macromol Mater Eng 299:953–958Google Scholar
  74. Thakur VK, Vennerberg D, Kessler MR (2014c) Green aqueous surface modification of polypropylene for novel polymer nanocomposites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:9349–9356Google Scholar
  75. Thakur VK, Vennerberg D, Madbouly SA, Kessler MR (2014d) Bio-inspired green surface functionalization of PMMA for multifunctional capacitors. RSC Adv 4:6677–6684Google Scholar
  76. Thakur VK, Thakur MK, Gupta RK (2014e) Review: raw natural fiber–based polymer composites. Int J Polym Anal Charact 19(3):256–271Google Scholar
  77. Thakur VK, Thakur MK, Raghavan P, Kessler M R (2014f) Progress in green polymer composites from lignin for multifunctional applications: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2(5):1072–1092Google Scholar
  78. Trecker DJ, Borden GW, Smith OW (1976) US Patent, 3,931,075Google Scholar
  79. Turunc O, Meier MA (2010) Fatty acid derived monomers and related polymers via thiol-ene (Click) additions. Macromol Rapid Commun 31:1822–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vaidya R (2012) International conference on environmental. Biomed Biotech 41:55Google Scholar
  81. Wang L, Wang T (2007) Chemical modification of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil to improve its functional properties for candles. J American Oil Chem Soc 84:1149–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Williams CK, Hillmyer MA (2008) Polymers from renewable resources: a perspective for a special issue of polymer reviews. Polym Rev 48:1–10Google Scholar
  83. Xia Y, Larock RC (2010) Vegetable oil-based polymeric materials: synthesis, properties, and applications. Green Chem 1893–1909Google Scholar
  84. Yongshang L, Richard CL (2007) New hybrid latexes from a soybean oil-based waterborne polyurethane and acrylics via emulsion polymerization. Biomacro 8:3108–3144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zdrahala RJ, Zdrahala IJ (1999) Biomedical applications of polyurethanes: a review of past promises, present realities, and a vibrant future. J Biomater Appl 14:67–90Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry of Heterocycles & Natural Product Research Laboratory, Organic Chemistry Division, School of Advanced SciencesVIT UniversityVelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations