Skip to main content

Optimisation of Mechanical Properties of Wood Dust-reinforced Epoxy Composite Using Grey Relational Analysis

Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC,volume 336)


In the present era of product development, composites are being used because of the ease in manufacturing and low weight to volume ratio. The increasing awareness towards environmental issues and requirement of more versatile polymer-based materials has led to higher interest in natural fibre/filler composites. In this paper, epoxy composite with six different filler contents (wt%) of sundi wood dust are tested at three different speeds. Tensile and flexural tests are performed according to ASTM standard. Different design parameters i.e., filler content (wt%) and speed for load, tensile stress and flexural stress values are optimised using grey relational analysis (GRA). Entropy method determines the corresponding weights to each criterion. A grey relational grade (GRG) has shown the improved performance parameter, and the best performance is observed at 10 % filler content with speed of 1 mm/min.


  • Wood dust
  • Reinforced epoxy composite
  • Mechanical properties
  • Entropy method
  • Grey relational analysis

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-2220-0_2
  • Chapter length: 12 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-81-322-2220-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1


\( X_{i}^{\prime} \left( k \right) \) :

Comparability sequence

\( X_{0}^{\prime} \left( k \right) \) :

Reference sequence

\( X_{i}^{*} \left( k \right) \) :

Comparability sequence after normalising

m :

Number of experimental data items

n :

Number of parameters

\( \Delta _{0}^{\prime} \) :

Deviation sequence of the reference sequence and comparability sequence

\( \xi \) :

Identification coefficient

\( \gamma \) :

Grey relational coefficient

\( \zeta \) :

Grey relational grade

\( D_{j} \) :

Degree of divergence

\( Z_{j} \) :

Weight of entropy


  1. Thakur, V.K., Thakur, M.K.: Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers thermoset polymer composites. Carbohydr. Polym. 109, 102–117 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Joshi, S.V., Drzal, L.T., Mohanty, A.K., Arora, S.: Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites. Compos. A 35, 371–376 (2004)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Azwa, Z.N., Yousif, B.F., Manalo, A.C., Karunasena, W.: A review on the degradability of polymeric composites based on natural fibres. Mater. Des. 47, 424–442 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Khalil, A.H.P.S., Bhat, I.U.H., Jawaid, M., Zaidon, A., Hermawan, D., Y.S., Hadi, Y.S.: Bamboo fibre reinforced biocomposites: a review. Mater. Des. 42, 353–368 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Dorez, G., Taguet, A., Ferry, A., Lopez-Cuesta, J.M.: Thermal and fire behaviour of natural fibers/PBS biocomposites. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 98, 87–95 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Fidelis, M.E.A., Pereira, T.V.C., Gomes, O.F.M., Silva, F.A., Filho, R.D.T.: The effect of fiber morphology on the tensile strength of natural fibers. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2(2), 149–157 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Fiore, V., Scalici, T., Vitale, G., Valenza, A.: Static and dynamic mechanical properties of Arundo Donax fillers-epoxy composites. Mater. Des. 57, 456–464 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. AlMaadeed, M.A., Kahraman, R., Khanam, P.N., Madi, N.: Date palm wood flour/glass fibre reinforced hybrid composites of recycled polypropylene: Mechanical and thermal properties. Mater. Des. 42, 289–294 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Shalwan, A., Yousif, B.F.: Influence of date palm fibre and graphite filler on mechanical and wear characteristics of epoxy composites. Mater. Des. 59, 264–273 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Ishizaki, M.H., Visconte, L.L., Furtado, C.R., Oliveira, M.G., Leblanc, J.L.: Characterization of green coconut fiber composites. Int. J. Polym. Anal. Charact. 13, 319–330 (2008)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Mylsamy, K., Rajendran, I.: The mechanical properties, deformation and thermo mechanical properties of alkali treated and untreated Agave continuous fibre reinforced epoxy composites. Mater. Des. 32, 3076–3084 (2011)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Mirmehdi, S.M., Zeinaly, F., Dabbagh, F.: Date palm wood flour as filler of linear low-density polyethylene. Compos. B 56, 137–141 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Hossain, M.R.: Islam, Md. A., Vuurea A.V., Verpoest, I.,: Tensile behavior of environment friendly jute epoxy laminated Composite. Proc. Eng. 56, 782–788 (2013)

    CrossRef  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  14. Ashori, A.: Wood–plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries. Bio Res. Technol. 99, 4661–4667 (2008)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Song, X., Zheng, S., Huang, J., Zhu, P.: Miscibility, morphology and fracture toughness of tetra functional epoxy resin/poly (styrene-co-acrylonitrile) blends. J. Mater. Sci. 35, 5613–5619 (2008)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Brighenti, R.: Fibre distribution optimisation in fibre-reinforced composites by a genetic algorithm. Compos. Struct. 71, 1–15 (2005)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Esmaeili, R., Dashtbayazi, M.R.: Modeling and optimization for microstructural properties of Al/SiC nanocomposite by artificial neural network and genetic algorithm. Expert Syst. Appl. 41, 5817–5831 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Vankanti, V.K., Ganta, V.: Optimization of process parameters in drilling of GFRP composite using Taguchi method. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 3(1), 35–41 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Nguyen, H.T., Dawal, S.Z.M., Nukman, Y., Aoyama, H.: A hybrid approach for fuzzy multi-attribute decision making in machine tool selection with consideration of the interactions of attributes. Expert Syst. Appl. 41, 3078–3090 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Kuo, Y., Yang, T., Huang, G.W.: The use of grey relational analysis in solving multiple attribute decision-making problems. Comput. Ind. Eng. 55, 80–93 (2008)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Sridharan, V., Muthukrishnan, N.: Optimization of machinability of polyester/modified jute fabric composite using grey relational analysis (GRA). Proc. Eng. 64, 1003–1012 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  22. Panneerselvam, K., Pradeep, K., Asokan, P.: Optimization of end milling parameters for glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) using grey relational analysis. Proc. Eng. 38, 3962–3968 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Barnasree Chanda .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer India

About this paper

Cite this paper

Chanda, B., Kumar, R., Kumar, K., Bhowmik, S. (2015). Optimisation of Mechanical Properties of Wood Dust-reinforced Epoxy Composite Using Grey Relational Analysis. In: Das, K., Deep, K., Pant, M., Bansal, J., Nagar, A. (eds) Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 336. Springer, New Delhi.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, New Delhi

  • Print ISBN: 978-81-322-2219-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-81-322-2220-0

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)