Exploration of the Effect of Demographic and Clinical Confounding Variables on Results of Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis in Schizophrenia
Brain morphometric abnormalities have been extensively reported in schizophrenia. In this research report, we used a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to identify the effect of various confounding factors on gray matter (GM) volume changes in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy control subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for all possible confounding factors during study design and analyses, as well as setting appropriate statistical significance thresholds while reporting results in brain morphometric studies of schizophrenia.
KeywordsVoxel-based morphometry Computerized tomography Structural magnetic resonance imaging GLM ANCOVA analysis using VBM
This study was supported by the Cognitive Science Research Initiative (CSI), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (Grant No. SR/CSI/79/2010).
- 1.M.E. Shenton, T.J. Whitford, M. Kubicki, Structural neuroimaging in schizophrenia: from methods to insights to treatments. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 12, 317–332 (2010)Google Scholar
- 3.S.B. Schwarzkopf, S.C. Olson, J.A. Coffman, H.A. Nasrallah, Third and lateral ventricular volumes in schizophrenia: support for progressive enlargement of both structures. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 26, 385–391 (1990)Google Scholar
- 9.R.A. Honea, A. Meyer-Lindenberg, K.B. Hobbs, L. Pezawas, V.S. Mattay, M.F. Egan, B. Verchinski, R.E. Passingham, D.R. Weinberger, H. Callicott, Is gray matter volume an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. A voxel-based morphometry study of patients with schizophrenia and their healthy siblings. Biol. Psychiatry 63, 465–474 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.E.M. Meisenzahl, N. Koutsouleris, R. Bottlender, J. Scheuerecker, M. Jäger, S.J. Teipel, S. Holzinger, T. Frodl, U. Preuss, G. Schmitt, B. Burgermeister, M. Reiser, C. Born, H.J. Möller, Structural brain alterations at different stages of schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. Schizophr. Res. 104, 44–60 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.V. Molina, G. Galindo, B. Cortés, A.G. de Herrera, A. Ledo, J. Sanz, C. Montes, J.A. Hernández-Tamames, Different gray matter patterns in chronic schizophrenia and chronic bipolar disorder patients identified using voxel-based morphometry. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 261, 313–322 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.K.O. Lim, W. Tew, M. Kushner, K. Chow, B. Matsumoto, L.E. DeLisi, Cortical gray matter volume deficit in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 153, 1548–1553 (1996)Google Scholar