Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Field and Trap Cultures from Rhizosphere Soils of Flemingia vestita Benth. ex Baker

  • L. S. SongachanEmail author
  • H. Kayang


Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated from natural and cultivated sites of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae). Sampling was done at monthly intervals for two crop cycles. Root samples were evaluated for AMF colonization in the form of arbuscules, vesicles and hyphae. AMF colonization and spore density was higher in natural site as compared to cultivated site. A total of 68 AMF species were isolated belonging to six genera: Acaulospora, Ambispora, Gigaspora, Glomus, Pacispora and Scutellospora. Trap cultures of AMF were also established with four different host plants (Oryza sativa L., Paspalum notatum Flüggé, Trifolium ripens L. and Zea mays L.) using rhizosphere soils from natural and cultivated sites. A total of 33 AMF species were isolated from trap cultures, out of which three species were not detected in F. vestita rhizosphere soil. Thus, trap cultures allow development and sporulation of AMF species which otherwise were not recovered from field soil.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Flemingia vestita Species 



The authors are thankful to Head, Department of Botany, North Eastern Hill University for providing laboratory facilities. The first author is also grateful to the Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship, New Delhi, for financial support in the form of research fellowship.


  1. Börstler B (2010) Diversity of cultured isolates and field populations of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices: development and application of molecular detection methods for mitochondrial haplotypes. Ph.D Thesis, Universität BaselGoogle Scholar
  2. Brundrett MC, Abbott LK, Jasper DA (1999) Glomalean mycorrhizal fungi from tropical Australia I. Comparison of the effectiveness and specificity of different isolation procedures. Mycorrhiza 8:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Castillo CG, Rubio R, Rouanet JL, Borie F (2006) Early effects of tillage and crop rotation on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal propagules in an Ultisol. Biol Fertil Soils 43:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dandan Z, Zhiwei Z (2007) Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the hot-dry valley of the Jinsha river, southwest China. Appl Soil Ecol 37:118–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Das B, Tandon V, Saha N (2004) Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): alterations in glucose metabolism of the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasitol Int 53:345–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dodd JC, Boddington CL, Rodriguez A, Gonzalez-Chavez C, Mansur I (2000) Mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from different genera: form, function and detection. Plant Soil 226:131–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duponnois R, Plenchette C, Thioulouse J, Cadet P (2001) The mycorrhizal soil infectivity and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore communities in soils of different aged fallows in Senegal. Appl Soil Ecol 17:239–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eom AH, Hartnett DC, Wilson GWT (2000) Host plant species effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in tallgrass prairie. Oecologia 122:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gerdemann JW, Nicolson TH (1963) Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 46:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goto BT, Maia LC, Oehl F (2008) Ambispora brasiliensis, a new ornamented species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycetes. Mycotaxon 105:11–18Google Scholar
  11. Hart MM, Trevors JT (2005) Microbe management: application of mycorrhizal fungi in sustainable agriculture. Frontiers in Ecol Environ 3:533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jansa J, Mozafar A, Anken T, Ruh R, Sanders IR, Frossard E (2002) Diversity and structure of AMF communities as affected by tillage in a temperate soil. Mycorrhiza 12:225–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jefwa JM, Sinclair R, Maghembe JA (2006) Diversity of Glomale mycorrhizal fungi in maize/sesbania intercrops and maize monocrop systems in southern Malawi. Agroforestry Syst 67:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Klironomos JN, Hart MM (2002) Colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using different sources of inoculum. Mycorrhiza 12:181–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li H, Smith SE, Holloway RE, Zhu Y, Smith FA (2006) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to phosphorous uptake by wheat grown in a phosphorous-fixing soil even in the absence of positive growth responses. New Phytol 172:536–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGonigle TP, Miller MH, Evans DG, Fairchild GL, Swan JA (1990) A new method which gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 115:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Oehl F, Sieverding E (2004) Pacispora, a new vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal genus in the Glomeromycetes. J Appl Bot 78:72–82Google Scholar
  18. Oehl F, Sieverding E, Mäder P, Dubois D, Ineichen K, Boller T, Wiemken A (2004) Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia 138:574–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Phillips JM, Hayman DS (1970) Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 55:158–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 2nd edn. Academic Press Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  22. Sýkorová Z, Ineichen K, Wiemken A, Redecker D (2007) The cultivation bias: different communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi detected in roots from the field, from bait plants transplanted to the field, and from a greenhouse trap experiment. Mycorrhiza 18:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Department of BotanyNorth Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia

Personalised recommendations