Chilli Anthracnose: A Review of Causal Organism, Resistance Source and Mapping of Gene

  • R. Garg
  • M. LoganathanEmail author
  • S. Saha
  • B. K. Roy


Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and it is gaining much attention towards causes of damage in the field. Growing understanding has been based on conventional methods of characterisation of Colletotrichum species and its interaction with the host but it was not clear enough to recognise the differentiation among species, host–pathogen relationship and genetics of resistance in chilli. In this chapter, emphasis has been made on the evaluation of the isolates of Colletotrichum capsici causing chilli anthracnose for their morphological and cultural characteristics, pathogenic variability on chilli fruits and genetic diversity with the help of random amplified polymorphism (RAPD-PCR) analysis and designated into different major clusters. Simultaneously, screening of Capsicum genotypes against anthracnose for testing the resistance has been highlighted under in vitro condition. Further, on the basis of inheritance and the segregation ratio of resistance to susceptibility, gene controlling resistance at different fruit maturity stages has been discussed. More importantly, by QTL mapping, distribution of resistance gene/s located on chromosomes by using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers, linkage groups are indicated. A number of complementary resistant component (host–parasitic interaction) controlled by one or multiple genes with small quantification effects have been emphasized. This information will be valuable to overcome the use of agrochemicals, impact of environmental factors and in the management of this serious threat to chilli through the development of resistant varieties as a donor candidate in commercial and resistance-breeding program.


Chilli anthracnose Colletotrichum capsici RAPD-PCR 


  1. Adikaram NKB, Brown A, Swinburne TR (1983) Observations on infection of Capsicum annuum fruit by Glomerella cingulata and Colletotrichum capsici. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 80:395–401Google Scholar
  2. Agrios GN (2005) Plant pathology 5th edn. Academic Press, San Diego, p 922Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed N, Dey SK, Hundal JS (1991) Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in chilli. Indian Phytopathol 44:402–403Google Scholar
  4. Backman PA, Landschoot PJ, Huff DR (1999) Variation in pathogenicity, morphology and RAPD marker profiles in Colletotrichum graminicola from turfgrasses. Crop Sci 39:1129–1135Google Scholar
  5. Bagri RK, Choudhary SL, Rai PK (2004) Management of fruit rot of chilli with different plant products. Indian Phytopathol 57(1):107–109Google Scholar
  6. Baird WV, Ballard RE, Rajapakse S, Abbott, AG (1996) Progress in Prunus mapping and application of molecular markers to germplasm improvement. Hort Sci 31:1099–1106Google Scholar
  7. Barone A (2004) Molecular marker-assisted selection for potato breeding. Am J Potato Res 81:111–117Google Scholar
  8. Basak AB (1997) Reaction of some chili germplasm to major fruit rotting fungal Pathogen. Chittagong—Univ-Stud Sci 21(1):123–125Google Scholar
  9. Brunt AA, Kenten RH, Phillips S (1978) Symptomatologically distinct strains of pepper veinal mottle virus from four West Africa solanaceous crops. Ann Appl Biol 88:115–119Google Scholar
  10. Butler EJ, Bisby GR (1960) The fungi of India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. Byung SK (2007) Country report of anthracnose research in Korea first international symposium on chili anthracnose. Hoam Faculty House, Seoul National University, Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  12. Cai L, Hyde KD, Taylor PWJ, Weir BS, Waller J, Abang MM, Zhang JZ, Yang YL, Phoulivong S, Liu ZY, Prihastuti H, Shivas RG, McKenzie EHC, Johnston PR (2009) A polyphasic approach for studying Colletotrichum. Fungal Divers 39:183–204Google Scholar
  13. Cheema DS, Singh DP, Rawal RD, Deshpande AA (1984) Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose disease in chillies. Capsicum Eggplant Newsl 3:44Google Scholar
  14. Cipriani G, Di Bella R, Testolin R (1996) Screening RAPD primers for molecular taxonomy and cultivars fingerprinting in genus Actinidia. Euphytica 90:169–174Google Scholar
  15. Dastur JF (1920) Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spald and its conidial form, Gloesporium piperatum and and Colletotrichum nigrum and Hals on chillies and Carica papaya. Ann Appl Biol 6(4):245–268Google Scholar
  16. Datar VV (1996) Pathogenicity and effect of temperature on six fungi causing fruit rot of chili. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 25(3):195–197Google Scholar
  17. Demissie A, Bjornstrand A (1996) Phenotypic diversity of Ethiopian barely in relation to geographical regions, altitudinal range and agroecological zones: as an aid to germplasm collection and conservation strategy. Hereditas 124:17–29Google Scholar
  18. Deshpande A, Ram DR (2007) Resistant sources of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) Anthracnose Fruit Rot Disease (Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) against different isolates collected from commercial chili growing areas of India. First International Symposium on Chili Anthracnose. Hoam Faculty House, Seoul National University, Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  19. Don LD, Van TT, Phuong VY TT, Kieu PTM (2007) Colletotrichum spp attacking on chilli pepper growing in Vietnam. Country Report. In: Oh DG, Kim KT (eds) Abstracts of the first international symposium on chilli anthracnose. Held at Seoul National University, Korea, p 42 (17–19 Sept 2007)Google Scholar
  20. Dulloo ME, Guarino L, Ford-Lioyed BV (1997) A bibliography and a review of genetic diversity studies of African germplasm using protein and DNA Markers. Genetic Reso Crop Evol 44:447–470Google Scholar
  21. Eagles H, Bariana H, Ogbonnaya F, Rebetzke G, Hollamby G, Henry R, Henschke P, Carter M (2001) Implementation of markers in Australian wheat breeding. Aust J Agric Res 52:1349–1356Google Scholar
  22. Ekbote SD, Jagadeesha RC, Patil MS (2002) Reaction of chili germplasm to fruit rot disease. Karnataka J Agric Sci 15(4):717–718Google Scholar
  23. Fernandes R, Ribeiro de LD (1998) Mode of inheritance of resistance in Capsicum annuum accessions to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In: Proc. 10th Eucarpia Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant, p 711Google Scholar
  24. Fregene M, Okogbenin E, Mba C, Angel F, Suarez MC, Janneth G, Chavarriaga P, Roca W, Bonierbale M, Tohme J (2001) Genome mapping in cassava improvement: challenges, achievements and opportunities. Euphytica 120:159–165Google Scholar
  25. Garg R (2011) Genetics of Host-Pathogen interaction: resistance to anthracnose in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Ph. D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, p 210Google Scholar
  26. Garg R, Kumar S, Kumar R, Loganathan M, Saha S, Kumar S, Rai AB, Roy BK (2013) Novel source of resistance and differential reactions on chilli fruit infected by Colletotrichum capsici. Aust Pt Pathol 42:227–233Google Scholar
  27. Gebhardt C, Valkonen, JPT (2001) Organization of genes controlling disease resistance in the potato genome. Ann Rev Phytopathol 39:79–102Google Scholar
  28. Gehlot P, Purohit DK (2001) Ultra structure of conidium ontogency in C. capsici. Indian Phytopathology 54(2):215–218Google Scholar
  29. Gniffke P A, Lin SW, Wang TC (2007) Evaluation of diverse chili pepper sources for resistance to anthracnose. First International Symposium on Chili Anthracnose held at Seoul National Univ. Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007, p 42Google Scholar
  30. Gupta PK, Varshney RK, Sharma PC, Ramesh B (1999) Molecular markers and their applications in wheat breeding. Plant Breed 118:369–390Google Scholar
  31. Guyomarc’h H, Sourdille P, Charmet G, Edwards KJ, Bernard M (2002) Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from Aegilops tauschii and transferability to the D-genome of bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 104:1164–1172Google Scholar
  32. Gwanme C, Labuschangne MJ, Botha AM (2000) Analysis of genetic variation in Cucurbita moschata by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers. Euphytica 113:19–24Google Scholar
  33. Hartman GL, Wang TC (1992) Characteristics of two Colletotrichum species and evaluation of resistance to anthracnose in pepper. Proc 3rd Intl Conf Plant Protection in the Tropics, vol 6. Malaysian Plant Protection Society, Kuala Lumpur, pp 202–205Google Scholar
  34. Hedge GM, Kulkarni S (2002) Vulnerable infection stage of chili fruit by C. capsici (Sydow.) Butler and Bisby. Karnatak J Agr Sci 14(1):162–163Google Scholar
  35. Isaac S (1992) Fungal Plant Interaction. Chapman and Hall Press, London, p 115Google Scholar
  36. Jahufer M, Cooper M, Ayres J, Bray R (2002) Identification of research to improve the efficiency of breeding strategies for white clover in Australia: a review. Aust J Agric Res 53:239–257Google Scholar
  37. Jain SM, Brar DS, Ahloowalia BS (2002) Molecular techniques in crop improvement. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, p 616Google Scholar
  38. Jayalakshmi C, Seetharaman R (1998) Evaluation chilli genotypes against fruit rot disease incited by C.Capsici. South-Indian-Hortic 46(1–2):104–105Google Scholar
  39. Jayalakshmi C, Seetharaman K (1999) Qualitative losses of chili fruits due to infection by Collectorichum capsici (syd) Butler and Bisby. Capsicum Eggplant Newsl 18:80–82Google Scholar
  40. Johnston PR, Jones D (1997) Relationships among Colletotrichum isolates from fruit-rots assessed using rDNA sequences. Mycologia 89(3):420–430Google Scholar
  41. Kang BC, Nahm SH, Huh JH, Yoo HS, Yu JW, Lee MH, Kim BD (2001) An interspecific Capsicum annuum x C. chinense F2 linkage map in pepper using RFLP and AFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 102:531–539Google Scholar
  42. Kasha KJ (1999) Biotechnology and world food supply. Genome 42:642–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kaur S, Singh J (1990) C.acutatum, a threat to chilli crop in Punjab. Indian Phytopathol 43:108–110Google Scholar
  44. Kelly JD, P Gepts, PN Miklas, DP Coyne (2003) Tagging and mapping of genes and QTL and molecular marker-assisted selection for traits of economic importance in bean and cowpea. Field Crops Res 82:135–154Google Scholar
  45. Khirbhat SK, Vajnana T, Mehra R (2004) Cultural and pathogenic variation among the nine isolates of Colletotrichum capsici causing fruit rot of Capsicum. Capsicum Eggplant Newsl 24:131–134Google Scholar
  46. Kim SH, Yoon JB, Park HG (2008) Inheritance of anthracnose resistance in a new genetic resource, Capsicum baccatum PI594137. J Crop Sci Biotech 11:13–16Google Scholar
  47. Kim S H, Yoon JB, Do JW, Park HG (2008a) Resistance to anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J Crop Sci Biotech 10(4):277–280Google Scholar
  48. Kim SH, Yoon JB, Do JW, Park HG (2008b) A major recessive gene associated with anthracnose resistance to Colletotrichum capsici in chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Breed Sci 58:137–141Google Scholar
  49. Koebner RMD, Summers RW (2003) 21st century wheat breeding: plot selection or plate detection? Trends Biotechnol 21:59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kumar S, Kumar R, Kumar S, Singh M, Rai AB, Rai M (2011) Incidences of leaf curl disease on Capsicum germplasm under field conditions. Indian J Agric Sci 81:187–189Google Scholar
  51. Lakshmesha K, Lakshmidevi K, Aradhya N, Mallikarjuna S (2005) Changes in pectinase and cellulase activity of Colletotrichum capsici mutants and their effect on Anthracnose disease on capsicum fruit. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 38:267–279Google Scholar
  52. Lee J, Jee-Hwa H, Jae WD, Jae BY (2010) Identification of QTLs for resistance to anthracnose to two Colletotrichum species in pepper. J Crop Sci Biotech 13(4):227–233Google Scholar
  53. Lefebvre V, Palloix A, Caranta C, Pochard E (1995) Construction of an intra-specific integrated linkage map of pepper using molecular markers and doubled haploid progenies. Genome 38:112–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lefebvre V, Caranta C, Pflieger S, Moury B, Daubèze AM, Blattes A, Ferriere C, Phaly T, Nemouchi G, Ruffinatto A, Palloix A (1997) Updated intra-specific maps of pepper. Capsicum Eggplant Newsl 16:35–41Google Scholar
  55. Leonian LH (1922) Stem and fruit blight of chillies caused by Phytophthora capsici sp. nov. Phytopathol 12:401–408Google Scholar
  56. Lia S, Wattimena GA, Guhrja E, Yusuf M, Aswidinoor dan Piet A (2002) Mapping QTLs for anthracnose resistance in anthracnose spp. J Bioteknol Pertan 7(2):43–54Google Scholar
  57. Lin Q, Kanchana UC, Jaunet T, Mongkolporn O (2002) Genetic analysis of resistance to pepper anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum capsici. Thai J Agric Sci 35:259–264Google Scholar
  58. Lin SW, Gniffke PA, Wang TC (2006) Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in chili pepper. 27th International Horticultural Congress & Exhibition, Seoul, 13–19 Aug 2006, p 14Google Scholar
  59. Litt M, Luty JM (1989) A hypervariable microsatellite revealed by in vitro amplification of a dinucleotide repeat within the cardiac muscle actin gene. Am J Hum Genet 44:397–401PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Livingstone KD, Lackney VK, Blauth JR, Van Wijk R, Jahn MK (1999) Genome mapping in Capsicum and the evolution of genome structure in the Solanaceae. Genetics 152:1183–1202PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lopes, Vila (2003) First International Symposium on Chilli Anthracnose held at Seoul National University, Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  62. Mackill DJ, Nguyen HT, Zhan J (1999) Use of molecular markers in plant improvement programs for rainfed lowland rice. Field Crops Res 64:177–185Google Scholar
  63. Madhavan S, Vaikuntavasan P, Rethinasamy V (2010) RAPD and virulence analyses of Colletotrichum capsici isolates from chilli (Capsicum annuum). J Plant Dis Prot 117:253–257Google Scholar
  64. Mahasuk P, Taylor PWJ, Mongkolporn O (2009a) Identification of two new genes conferring resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum in Capsicum baccatum. Phytopathol 99(9):1100–1104Google Scholar
  65. Mahasuk P, Khumpeng S, Wasee PW J Taylor, Mongkolporn O (2009b) Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum capsici) at seedling and fruiting stages in chilli pepper (Capsicum spp.) Plant Breed 128(6):701–706Google Scholar
  66. Manandhar JB, Hartman GL, Wang TC (1995) Anthracnose development on pepper fruits inoculated with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Plant Dis 79:380–383Google Scholar
  67. Margale E, Herve Y, Hu J, Quiros CF (1995) Determination of genetic variability by RAPD markers in cauliflower, cabbage, and Kale local cultivars from France. Genetic Res Crop Evol 42:281–289Google Scholar
  68. Mehlenbacher SA (1995) Classical and molecular approaches to breeding fruit and nut crops for disease resistance. Hort Sci 30:466–477Google Scholar
  69. Montri P, Taylor PWJ, Mongkolporn O (2009) Pathotypes of Colletotrichum capsici, the causal agent of chilli anthracnose, in Thailand plant disease. Plant Dis 93(1):17–20Google Scholar
  70. Moriwaki J, Tsukiboshi T, Sato T (2002) Grouping of Colletotrichum species in Japan based on rDNA sequences. J Gen Plant Pathol 68(4):307–320Google Scholar
  71. Motto M, Marsan PA (2002) Construction and use of genetic maps in cereals. In: Jain MS (ed) Molecular techniques in crop improvement. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 347–370Google Scholar
  72. Muehlbauer F, Kaiser W, Simon C (1994) Potential for wild species in cool season food legume breeding. Euphytica 73:109–114Google Scholar
  73. Muhyi R, Bosland PW (1992) Evaluation of Capsicum germplasm for sources of resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. Hort Sci 30:341–342Google Scholar
  74. Nanda C, Mohan Rao A, Ramesh S, Pratibha VH, Shivakumara AP (2007) Identification of parents suitable for mapping and tagging genes conferring resistance to anthracnose in hot pepper. First International Symposium on Chili Anthracnose, Hoam Faculty House, Seoul National University, Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007, p 26Google Scholar
  75. Oanh L T K, Korpraditskul V, Rattanakreetakul C (2004) A pathogenicity of anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum capsici on various Thai chilli varieties. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 38(6):103–108Google Scholar
  76. Ong CA, Varghese G, Poh TW (1979) Aetiological investigations on a veinal mottle virus of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) newly recorded from Peninsular Malaysia. Malay Agric Res Dev Inst (MARDI) Res Bull 7:78–88Google Scholar
  77. Ortiz R (1998) Critical role of plant biotechnology for the genetic improvement of food crops: perspectives for the next millennium. Electron J Biotechnol 1(3, Issue of August 15), pp 1–Google Scholar
  78. Pakdeevaraporn P, Wasee S, Taylor PWJ, Mongkolporn O (2005) Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum capsici in Capsicum. Plant Breed 124:206–208Google Scholar
  79. Paran I, Van der Voort JR, Lefebvre V, Jahn M, Landr, L, van Schriek, M, Tanyolac B, Caranta C, Ben-Chaim A, Living stone K, Palloix A, Peleman J (2004) An integrated genetic linkage map of pepper (Capsicum spp.). Mol Breed 13:251–261Google Scholar
  80. Park KS, Kim CH (1992) Identification, distribution, and etiological characteristics of anthracnose fungi of red pepper in Korea. Korean J Plant Pathol 8:61–69Google Scholar
  81. Park HK, Kim BS, Lee WS (1990a) Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) I. Genetic analysis of anthracnose resistance by diallel crosses. J Kor Soc Hort Sci 31:91–105Google Scholar
  82. Park HK, Kim BS, Lee WS (1990b) Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) II. Genetic analysis of resistance to Colletotrichum dematium. J Kor Soc Hort Sci 31:207–212Google Scholar
  83. Paul YS, Behl MK (1990) Some studies on bell pepper anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum capsici and its control. Seed Res 1:656–659Google Scholar
  84. Pcrane RR, Jai MB (1986) Reaction of chilli Cultivars to fruit rot and die-back of chili incited by C.capsici. Curr-Res-Report 2:1, 52–53Google Scholar
  85. Pearson MN, Bull PB, Speke H (1984) Anthracnose of Capsicum in Papua, New Guinea; varietal reaction and associated fungi. Trop Pest Manag 30:230–233Google Scholar
  86. Powell W, Machery GC, Provan J (1996a) Polymorphism revealed by simple sequence repeats. Trends Genet 1:76–83Google Scholar
  87. Powell W, Morgante M, Andre C, Hanafey M, Vogel J, Tingey S, Rafaski A (1996b) The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. Mol Breed 2:225–238Google Scholar
  88. Prince JP, Pochard E, Tanksley SD (1993) Construction of molecular linkage map of pepper and a comparison of synteny with tomato. Genome 36:404–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pring RJ, Nash C, Zakaria M, Bailey JA (2002) Infection process and host range of Colletotrichum capsici. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 46(2):137–152Google Scholar
  90. Rai VP (2010) Genetic and molecular analysis of pepper leaf curl resistance in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Ph. D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu University, VaranasiGoogle Scholar
  91. Ramachandran N, Rathnamma K (2006) Colletotrichum acutatum—a new addition to the species of chilli anthracnose pathogen in India. Paper presented at the Annual meeting & symposium of Indian Phytopathological society, Central Planation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, 27–28 Nov 2006Google Scholar
  92. Ramachandran N, Madhavi Reddy K, Rathnamma K (2007) Current status of chilli anthracnose in India. Paper presented at the First International Symposium on Chilli Anthracnose held at Seoul National University, Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  93. Ratanacherdchai K, Wang HK, Lin FC, Soytong K (2007) RAPD analysis of Colletotrichum species causing chilli anthracnose disease in Thailand. J Agric Technol 3(2):211–219Google Scholar
  94. Ratanacherdchai K, Wang HK, Lin FC, Kasem S (2010) ISSR for comparison of cross-inoculation potential of Colletotrichum capsici causing chilli anthracnose. Afri J Microbiol Res 4(1):076–083Google Scholar
  95. Rivelli VC (1989) A wilt of pepper incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici f. sp. nov. M.S. Thesis, Louisiana State University, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  96. Roberts PD, Pernezny K, Kucharek TA (2001). Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum sp. on pepper [Online]. J Univ Florida/Inst Food Agric Sci. http://edis.ifas. Accessed 25 Dec 2007
  97. Roy A, Bordoloi DK, Paul SR (1998) Reaction of chili (C.annum L.) genotypes to fruit rot under field condition. PKV-Res-J 22:1, 155Google Scholar
  98. Sanogo S (2003) Chile pepper and the threat of wilt diseases. Online. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2003-0430-01-RV Google Scholar
  99. Sawant IS, Narker SP, Shetty DS, Upadhyay A, Sawant SD (2012) First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on grapes in Maharastra. New Disease report 25:2.
  100. Selvakumar R (2007) Variability among Colletotrichum capsici causing Chilli Anthracnose in North Eastern India In first international symposium on chilli Anthracnose held at Seoul National University, Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  101. Sharma PN, Kaur M, Sharma OP, Sharma P, Pathania A (2005) Morphological, pathological and molecular variability in Colletotrichum capsici, the cause of fruit rot of chillies in the subtropical region of north-western India. J Phytopathology 153(4):232–237Google Scholar
  102. Sharman PC, Winter P, Bunger T, Huttel B, Kahl G (1997) Expanding the repertoire of molecular markers for resistance breeding in chickpea. In: Udupa SM, Weigand F (eds) DNA Markers and breeding for resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea. Proceedings of the symposium on “ application of dna fingerprinting for crop improvement of: marker assisted selection of chickpea for sustainable agriculture in the dry areas.” ICARDA, Aleppo, pp 175–198 (11–12 April 1994)Google Scholar
  103. Shin HJ, Xu T, Zhang CL, Chen Z J (2000) The comparative study of capsicum anthracnose pathogens from Korea with that of China. J Zhejiang Univ (Agric Life Sci) 26:629–634Google Scholar
  104. Singh AP, Kaur S, Singh J (1993) Determination of infection in fruit rot (C.capsici) of chilli (C.annum). Indian J Agric Sci 63(5):310–312Google Scholar
  105. Singh A, Thakur DP (1979) Reaction of chili (C. fruitescens) varieties to C. capsici (Syd.) Butler and Bisby. Curr Sci 48(11):512–513Google Scholar
  106. Sinha AK (2004) Factors influencing growth sporulation and spore germination of C Capsici. Adv Plant Sci 17(1):71–73Google Scholar
  107. Simmonds JH (1965) A study of the species of Colletotrichum causing ripe fruit rots in Queensland. Qld J Agric Anim Sci 22:437–459Google Scholar
  108. Snowdon R, Friedt W (2004) Molecular markers in Brassica oilseeds breeding: current status and future possibilities. Plant Breed 123:1–8Google Scholar
  109. Staub JE, Box J, Meglic V, Horejsi TF, Mc Creight JD (1997) Comparison of isozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA data for determining interspesfic variation in cucumis. Gene Reso Crop Evol 44:557–564Google Scholar
  110. Stuber CW, Polacco M, Senior ML (1999) Synergy of empirical breeding, marker-assisted selection, and genomics to increase crop yield potential. Crop Sci 39: 1571–1583Google Scholar
  111. Svetleva D, Velcheva M, Bhowmik G (2003) Biotechnology as a useful tool in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) improvement: a review. Euphytica 131:189–200Google Scholar
  112. Tanksley SD, Bernatzky R, Lapitan N, Prince JP (1988) Conservation of gene repertoire but not gene order in pepper and tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:6419–6423PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Than PP, Shivas RG, Jeewon R, Pongsupasamit S, Marney TS, Taylor PWJ, Hyde KD (2008a) Epitypification and phylogeny of Colletotrichum acutatum JH Simmonds. Fungal Divers 28:97–108Google Scholar
  114. Thind TS, Jhooty JS (1990) Studies on variability in two Colletotrichum spp. causing anthracnose nose and fruit rot of chilli in Punjab. Indian Phytopathol 43:53–58Google Scholar
  115. Thomas W (2003) Prospects for molecular breeding of barley. Ann Appl Biol 142:1–12Google Scholar
  116. Thurston HD (1971) Relationship of general resistance: late blight of potato. Phytopathol 61:620–626Google Scholar
  117. Torres-Calzada C, Tapia-Tussell R, Quijano-Ramayo A, Martin-Mex R, Rojas-Herrera R, Higuera-Ciapara I, Perez-Brito D (2011) A species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Colletotrichum capsici. Mol Biotechnol 49(1):48–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tuberosa R, Salvi S, Sanguineti MC, Maccaferri M S, Giuliani Landi P (2003) Searching for quantitative trait loci controlling root traits in maize: a critical appraisal. Plant Soil 255:35–54Google Scholar
  119. Tussell RT, Ramayo AQ, Velazquez AC, Lappe P, Saavedra AL, Brito DP (2008) PCR-Based detection and characterization of the fungal pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in the Yucatan Peninsula. Mol Biotechnol 40:293–298Google Scholar
  120. Varshney RK, Graner A, Sorrells ME (2005) Genic microsatellite markers in plants: features and applications. Trends Biotechnol 23:48–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Voorrips RE (2004) QTLs mapping of Anthracnose (Collectorichum sp) resistance in a cross between Capsicum annum and C. Chinense. Theor Appl Genet 109(6):1275–1282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wasantha KL, Rawal RD (2008) Influence of carbon, nitrogen, temperature and pH on the growth and sporulation of some Indian isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose disease of papaya (Carrica papaya l). Trop Agric Res Ext 11:7–12Google Scholar
  123. Weeds P L, Chakraborty S, Fernandes CD, Charchar MJ d΄A, Ramesh CR, Kexian Y, Kelemu S (2003) Genetic diversity in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Stylosanthes spp. at centers of origin and utilization. Phytopathology 93:176–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Whitelaw-Weckert MA, Curtin SJ, Huang R, Steel CC, Blanchard CL, Roffey PE (2007) Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates from grape in subtropical Australia. Plant Pathol 56:448–463Google Scholar
  125. Widodo WD (2007) Status of Chili Anthracnose in Indonesia, First International symposium on chilli Anthracnose. Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  126. Williams KJ (2003) The molecular genetics of disease resistance in barley. Aust J Agric Res 54:1065–1079Google Scholar
  127. Winter P, Huttel B, Weising K, Kahl G (2002) Microsatellites and molecular breeding: exploitation of microsatellite variability for the analysis of a monotonous genome. In: Jain MS (ed) Molecular techniques in crop. Improvement. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, pp 85–138Google Scholar
  128. Xiao CL, MacKenzie, S J, Legard DE (2004) Genetic and pathogenic analyses of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from strawberry and non cultivated hosts. Phytopathology 94:446–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Yabuuchi EY, Kosako I, Yano H Hotta, Y Nishiuchi (1995) Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species to Ralstonia gen. nov: proposal of Ralstonia pickettii (Ralston, Palleroni and Douderoff 1973) comb. nov., Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith 1896) comb. nov. and Ralstonia eutropha (Davis 1969) comb. nov. Microbiol Immunol 39:897–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Yoon JB, Park HG (2001) Screening method for resistance to pepper fruits anthracnose: pathogen sporulation, inoculation methods related to inoculum concentrations, post-inoculation environments. J Korean Soc Hortic Sci 42:389–393Google Scholar
  131. Yoon JB, Yang DC, Lee WP, Ahn SY, Park HG (2004) Genetic resources resistant to anthracnose in the genus Capsicum. J Korean Soc Hortic Sci 45:318–323Google Scholar
  132. Zhang D, Chunhui Zhu, Yong Liu (2007) Chilli Anthracnose Research in China: an overview. First International Symposium on Chilli Anthracnose. Seoul, 17–19 Sept 2007Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Vegetable ResearchVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations