Advertisement

Spatiotemporal Variations in Microbial Mediated Nitrogen (N) Release Under N-Fertilization Experiment from Banaras Hindu University, India

  • Punita Verma
  • R. SagarEmail author
  • Kuldip
  • Dharmendra K. Singh
Chapter

Abstract

Globally, atmospheric nitrogen depositions due to fossil fuel combustion, industrial, and agricultural activities have been identified as serious threats to soil, water, and vegetation. In soil, N-deposition affects the respiration, microbial activities, enzymes actions, litter decomposition, and N-mineralization. The process of N-mineralization involves ammonification and nitrification. Ammonification is mediated by Clostridium sp., Micrococcus sp., Proteus sp., etc. Nitrification is mediated by the activities of diverse group of microorganisms (Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrosococcus nitrosus, Nitrosospira briensis, Nitrosovibrio, Nitrocystis, Nitrobacter winogradski, Nitrospira gracilis, Nitrosococcus mobilis, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Streptomyces, Nocardia, etc.). In the present study, spatiality, rates of ammonification, nitrification, and net N-mineralization were governed by the soil properties (pH, moisture, C, N, and litter quality) and temporally these processes are determined by the rainfall pattern. Further, the study suggested that the rates of ammonification, nitrification, and net N-mineralization were greater at moderate level of N application. This affinity can be speculated as: at low levels of N resource, soil-C and -N are not enough for the activities of nitrifiers to release them in available form. As N increases more, actively participating microorganisms are enabled to release the nutrients in available form through the process of ammonification, nitrification and thus net N-mineralization, at sufficiently high N level, nitrifier population as well as their activities could be limited and thus the process of N-mineralization is limited. On the other hand, excessive N-application may damage the natural flora and fauna of soil which depletes the soil fertility. It could be also speculated that the N-limited ecosystems keep the deposited N by using it for the growth and developments of plants and microbes, in addition to accumulation in biomass and soil organic matter. At a certain point, the deposited N commences to go beyond the biotic and abiotic needs for N within the system and the ecosystem is predicted to fail its N-retention ability. As the capability to keep N exceeds, surplus N is offered to be vanished from the ecosystem through solution losses and gas flux. Thus, in this study moderate level of N accelerated the process of N-mineralization.

Keywords

Nitrogen deposition Nitrifiers N-mineralization 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Funding support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is acknowledged.

References

  1. APHA (American Public Health Association) (1985) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Bobbink R, Hicks K, Galloway J, Spranger T, Alkemade R, Ashmore M, Bustamante M, Cinderby S et al (2010) Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis. Ecol Appl 20:30–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buol SW, Southard RJ, Graham RC, McDaniel PA (2003) Soil genesis and classification, 5th edition. Iowa State Press-Blackwell, AmesGoogle Scholar
  4. Fang YT, Zhu WX, Mo JM, Zhou GY, Gundersen P (2006) Dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen and their responses to nitrogen additions in three subtropical forests, south China. J Environ Sci 18:752–759Google Scholar
  5. Fisher FM, Parker LW, Anderson JP, Whitford WG (1987) Nitrogen mineralization in a desert soil-interacting effects of soil moisture and nitrogen fertilizer. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1033–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fu MH, Xu XC, Tabatabai MA (1987) Effect of pH on nitrogen mineralization in crop residue-treated soil. Biol Fertile Soils 5:115–119Google Scholar
  7. Gonzalez-Prieto SJ, Villar MC, Carballas M, Carballas T (1992) Nitrogen mineralization and its controlling factors in various kinds of temperate humid-zone soils. Plant Soil 144:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jackson M (1958) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  9. Jones CA, Koenig RT, Ellsworth JW, Brown BD, Jackson GD (2007) Management of Urea Fertilizer to Minimize Volatilization. EB 173. Montana State University Extension and Washington State University ExtensionGoogle Scholar
  10. Kros J, Frumau KFA, Hensen A, de Vries W (2011) Integrated analysis of the effects of agricultural management on nitrogen fluxes at landscape scale. Environ Pollut 159:3171–3182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Makoi JHJR, Ndakidemi PA (2008) Selected soil enzymes: Examples of their potential roles in the ecosystem. Afr J Biotechnol 7:181–191Google Scholar
  12. McAleece N, Gage JD, Lambshead J, Patterson GLJ (1997) Biodiversity Professional. The Natural History Museum and The Scottish Association for Marine ScienceGoogle Scholar
  13. Matson PA, McDowell WD, Townsend A, Vitousek P (1999) The globalization of nitrogen deposition: ecosystem consequences in tropical environments. Biogeochemistry 46:67–83Google Scholar
  14. Matson PA, Lohse KA, Hall HJ (2002) The globalization of nitrogen deposition: consequences for terrestrial ecosystems. Ambio 31:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mazzarino MJ, Bertiller MB, Sain C, Satti P, Coronato F (1998) Soil nitrogen dynamics in northeastern Patagonia Steppe under different precipitation regimes. Plant Soil 202:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mlambo D, Mwenje E, Nyathi P (2007) Effects of tree cover and season on soil nitrogen dynamics and microbial biomass in an African savanna woodland dominated by Colophospermum mopane. J Trop Ecol 23:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pan JJ, Widner B, Ammerman D, Drenovsky RE (2010) Plant community and tissue chemistry responses to fertilizer and litter nutrient manipulations in a temperate grassland. Plant Ecol 206:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rao LE, Parker DR, Bytnerowicz A, Allen EB (2009) Nitrogen mineralization across an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California deserts. J Arid Environ 73:920–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reddy KR, Patrick WH, Broadbent FE (1984) Nitrogen transformation and loss in flooded soils and sediments. Crit Rev Environ contr 13:273–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roy S, Singh JS (1994) Consequences of habitat heterogeneity for availability of nutrients in a Dry Tropical Forest. J Ecol 82:503–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sagar R, Verma P (2010) Effects of soil physical characteristics and biotic interferences on the herbaceous community composition and species diversity in the campus of Banaras Hindu University, India. Environmentalist 30:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sagar R, Singh A, Singh JS (2008) Differential effect of woody plant canopies on species composition and diversity of ground vegetation: a case study. Trop Ecol 49:189–197Google Scholar
  23. Sala OE, Chapin FS III, Armesto JJ, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, Huber-Sanwald E, Huenneke LF et al (2000) Global biodiversity scenario for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–1774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Singh A (2011) Natural floristic composition of Banaras Hindu University, India: an overview. Int J Peace Dev Stud 2:13–25Google Scholar
  25. Singh Jay S, Kashyap AK (2007) Contrasting pattern of nitrifying bacteria and nitrification in seasonally dry tropical forest soils. Curr Sci 92:1739–1744Google Scholar
  26. Singh Jay S, Singh DP, Kashyap AK (2009) A comparative account of the microbial biomass-N and N-mineralization of soils under natural forest, grassland and crop field from dry tropical region, India. Plant Soil Environ 55:223–230Google Scholar
  27. Smith VH, Tilman D, Nekola JC (1999) Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ pollut 100:179–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. SPSS (1997) SPSS base 7.5 application guide. SPSS, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  29. Stevens C (2009) The impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on grassland: species composition and biogeochemistry. Vdm VerlagGoogle Scholar
  30. Verma P, Verma P, Sagar R (2013) Variations in N mineralization and herbaceous species diversity due to sites, seasons, and N treatments in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India. Forest Ecology an. Management 297:15–26Google Scholar
  31. Vitousek P, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler D, Schlessinger WH, Tilman D (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: cause and consequences. Issue Ecol 1:1–17Google Scholar
  32. Vourlitis GL, Zorba G, Pasquini SC, Mustard R (2007) Chronic nitrogen deposition enhances nitrogen mineralization potential of semiarid shrubland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:836–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Waldrop MP, Donald R, Zak RL, Sinsabaugh MG, Lauber C (2004) Nitrogen deposition modifies soil carbon storage through changes in microbial enzymatic activity. Ecol Appl 14:1172–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Walkley A (1947) A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci 63:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang H, Mo J, Xiankai L, Jinghua XUE, Jiong L, Yunting F (2009) Effect of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon in major subtropical forest of southern China. Front For China 4:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Whitford WG, Martinez-Turanzas G, Martinez-Meza E (1995) Persistence of decertified ecosystems: explanations and implications. Environ Monit Assess 37:319–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Punita Verma
    • 1
  • R. Sagar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kuldip
    • 1
  • Dharmendra K. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations