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Biodiversity and Conservation of Forest Fungi of Central India

  • R. K. VermaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Biodiversity of the forest fungi of central India (Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and part of Maharashtra) has been recorded. A total of 838 fungi belonging to 321 genera (199 genera of ascomycetes, 107 basidiomycetes, 10 phycomycetes, and 3 myxomycetes) were recorded on different substrates from the forests. Among them, 529 species belong to ascomycete, 282 to basidiomycete, and 26 to lower fungi and myxomycete. The maximum number of fungi, 347 recorded on leaf, followed by 259 on stem and wood, 121 in soil/on ground, 33 in litter, 19 on roots, 24 on seed/pods/seedlings and 2 on insects, were reported on leaf causing common leaf diseases. Fungi recorded on stem, branches, twigs, culms, etc. are either causing cankers, twig blights, die back, etc. or decay and deterioration of these organs in standing trees as well as fallen parts on the forest floor. Top dying and root rot of teak caused by Phomopsis tectonae and Helicobasidium compactum are the diseases causing serious damage in plantations of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, respectively. Some fungi, for example species of Amanita, Astraeus, Boletus, Geastrum, Lepiota, Pisolithus, Ramaria, Russula, Scleroderma, Thelephora, etc., produce ectomycorrhizae while species of Coriolopsis, Daedalea, Daldinia, Earliella, Favolus, Flavodon, Funalia, Ganoderma, Hypoxylon, Hymenochaete, Inonotus, Irpex, Junghunia, Lenzites, Microporus, Navisporus, Phellinus, Polyporus, Polystictus, Poria, Pyrofomes, Rigidoporus, Skeletocutis, Stereum, Tremates, Xylaria, etc. are the common wood-decay fungi. Common mushroom collected from the ground and decaying wood and litter are species of Agaricus, Amanita, Agrocybe, Coprinus, Lepiota, Marasmius, Mycena, Pleurotus, Termitomyces, Tricholoma, and Volvariella. Root rot of Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia catechu caused by Ganoderma lucidum is posing a serious threat in central India. Spongipellis spumeus causes root rot in the mature trees of Albizia procera and is also causing considerable damage. Some recently recorded new diseases include vascular wilt of aonla caused by Fusarium solani and root rot of teak seedlings (only occurs under water stress condition) caused by Helicobasidium compactum and Tritirachium roseum. Two new genera and 30 new species were described from central India during the last 5 years. Recently described new species include Asterostomella shoreae, Cheilymenia jabalpurensis, Nitschkia tectonae, and Passalora emblicae. In central India over 2,700 fungi were collected during the last 15 years, out of them 12.3 % fungi were collected only once and are considered as threatened and needs conservation. Only 1.8 % fungi were frequently collected (more than 11 times during this period) including Phomopsis tectonae, whose population is recorded increasing in teak growing areas. The data indicate that the population of major fungi is dwindling with time.

Keywords

Forest fungi Fungal diversity Conservation of fungi Leaf spot Root rot Soil fungi Twig spot Wood rot 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to Dr. U. Prakasam, Director, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur for providing the research facilities.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Pathology Division, Tropical Forest Research InstitutePO-RFRCJabalpurIndia

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