Antimicrobial Activity of Some Cyanobacteria
Many green and blue-green algae were examined for their antibacterial and antifungal properties using their extracts in three different solvents, ethanol, methanol-toluene (3:1) and acetone, on solidified agar nutrient medium by agar well diffusion method. Extracts of only five screened cyanobateria, Westiellopsis prolifica ARM 365, Hapalosiphon hibernicus ARM 178, Nostoc muscorm ARM 221, Fischerella sp. ARM 354 and Scytonema sp., were found to have antimicrobial activity against the bacteria Pseuomonas striata, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Bradyrhizobium sp. and fungi Aspergillus niger, Alternaria brassicae and Fusarium moniliforme. Ethanol extracts of Westiellopsis prolifica ARM 365 and H. hibernicus ARM 178 showed the greatest antibacterial as well as antifungal activity against the tested bacteria and fungi as revealed by the largest inhibition zone formation on solidified agar nutrient medium. The test bacterium P. striata and the test fungus A. niger were found to be the most sensitive to ethanol extracts of H. hibernicus ARM 178 and W. prolifica ARM 365. These cyanobacterial extracts inhibited test bacteria more strongly than test fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity of H. hibernicus ARM 178 and W. prolifica ARM 365 was observed on the tenth day of their growth and their ethanol extracts showed the maximum antimicrobial activity at 30 °C temperature. These antimicrobial compounds may have potential pharmaceutical, biocontrol or agricultural applications.
KeywordsAntimicrobial metabolites · Cyanobacteria Bacteria Fungi
This study was performed by Rashmi Tyagi in the Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (CSIR-Senior Research Associate) with B. D. Kaushik (Head of the Department) and in the ITM University, Gurgaon.
- Al-Wathnani H, Ara I, Tahmaz RR, Al-Dayel TH, Bakir MA (2012) Bioactivity of natural compounds isolated from cyanobacteria and green algae against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast. J Medicinal Pt Res 6(18):3425–3433Google Scholar
- Fred EB, Baldwin IL, Mc Coy E (1932) Root nodule bacteria and leguminous plants. In: Studies in Science No. 5, (Ed. Fred EB, Baldwin IL, Mc Coy E ), Univ Wis Madison, Wisconsin, pp 41Google Scholar
- Harder R (1917) Ernahrungsphysiologische untersuchungen an cyanophycean hauptsachlich dem endophytischen Nostoc punctiforme. Z Biot 9:145–242Google Scholar
- John DM, Whitton BA, Brook AJ (2003) The freshwater algal flora of the British isles, an identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 117–122Google Scholar
- Kalireioglu H, Beyatli Y, Aslim B, Yüksekdag Z, Atici T (2006) Screening for antimicrobial agent production of some microalgae in freshwater. Internet J Microbiol 2:235Google Scholar
- Mayer AMS, Hamann MT (2005) Marine pharmacology in 2001–2002: marine compounds with antihelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action. Comparative Biochemistry Phycology C 140:265–286Google Scholar
- Pikovaskaya RI (1948) Mobilization of phosphorus in soil in connection with vital activity of some microbial species. Mikrobiologiya 17:362–370Google Scholar
- Rania MA, Hala MT (2008) Antibacterial and antifungal activity of cyanobacteria and geen microalgae. Evaluation of medium components by Plackett-Burman design for antimicrobial activity of Spirulina platensis. Global J Biotech Biochem 3(1):22–31Google Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch FE, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning. In: A Laboratory Manual 2 Ed. (Ed. Sambrook J, Fritsch FE, Maniatis T) Cold Spring Harbour Lab PressGoogle Scholar
- Thummajitsakul S, Kun Silprasit K, Sittipraneed S (2012) Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of cyanobacteria Phormidium and Microcoleus species. Afr J Microbiol Res 6(10):2574–2579Google Scholar
- Tuney I, Cadirci B, Unal D, Sukatar A (2006) Antimicrobial activities of the extracts of marine algae from the cost of Urla (Izmir, Turkey). Turk J Biol 30:171–175Google Scholar