Evaluation of Biotic and Abiotic Factors for Production of Healthy Apple (Malus × domestica) Seedling

  • Jitender K. VermaEmail author
  • D. K. Kishore
  • S. K. Sharma
  • Asha Sharma


Cultivation of apple has become the main occupation and major source of economy to the farming community of Himachal Pradesh, India. The production and supply of healthy apple nursery is key factor in the establishment of healthy orchard. The nursery production can be carried out at lower elevation at an altitude of 1,200–2,500 m. One-year-old seedlings embrace the price tag of ₹ 30–70. It can be a good prospective for small farmers with limited input. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma viride (at the rate 100 g/m2) and its combined use with other soil amendment, viz. Vitex leaves (at the rate 1 kg/m2), soil heating by burning and soil solarization, influences the soil microflora and growth parameters of seedling in apple nursery. The experiment was conducted during the year 2009–2010 to compare effects of various nonchemical methods and recommended chemical methods on the growth of seedlings raised through seeds in Karsog valley of Himachal Pradesh at farmer’s field. Apple saplings growth parameters, health, vigorous, population of soil micro flora, pH, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon/matter contents were affected by soil amendments in nursery at all experimental sites.


Trichoderma Biocontrol Vitex nigundo Soil micro flora Plant protection 


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jitender K. Verma
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. K. Kishore
    • 1
  • S. K. Sharma
    • 2
  • Asha Sharma
    • 3
  1. 1.IARIShimla-4India
  2. 2.YSP UH&FKinnaurIndia
  3. 3.Department of BotanyMDURohtakIndia

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