Bi-directional Pixel-Value Differencing Approach for Steganography

  • Himakshi
  • Harsh Kumar Verma
  • Ravindra Kumar Singh
  • Charan Kamaljit Singh
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 258)


A hybrid image steganographic approach has been proposed in this paper to enlarge the data hiding capability of cover image as well as to improve the quality of stego image. This research is a hybrid combination of cryptography, steganography and data compression. The basic building block of this approach is Wu and Tsai’s method (PVD), LZW compression scheme, Vernam cipher and gray code. In this approach, chunks of the secret data are embedded by altering the pixel values of the consecutive pixels in the cover image according to their hiding capacity. The hiding capacity of the two consecutive pixels depends on their difference value, which is calculated by pixel-value differencing technique (PVD). Two layer data hiding is the key feature of this approach that’s why it is called a Bi-Directional approach. Two layer data hiding approach improves the data hiding capacity and quality of stego image as well. In second layer data hiding we consider left pixel of the pixel pair as the right pixel and vive-versa. It improves the quality of stego image. In this technique stego image is totally indistinguishable from the original image by the human eye. It is also secure against the RS detection attack.


Steganography Compression Cryptography PVD Stego image Cover image RS detection attack LZW Verman cipher Gray code 


  1. 1.
    Feng, J.B., Lin, I.C., Tsai, C.S., Chu, Y.P.: Reversible watermarking: current status and key issues. Int. J. of Network Secur. 2, 161–170 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salomon, D.: Data Compression: The Complete Reference, 4th edn. Springer, London (2007) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liao, Z., Huang, Y., Li, C.: Research on data hiding capacity. Int. J. Network Secur. 5, 140–144 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harmsen, J., Pearlman, W.: Steganalysis of additivenoise modelable information hiding. In: Proceedings of SPIE Security Watermarking Multimedia Contents, vol. 5020, pp. 131–142, (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sharp, T.: An implementation of key-based digital signal steganography. In: Proceedings of Information Hiding Workshop, vol. 2137, pp. 13–26. Springer LNCS (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahirwal, R.R., Ahirwal, D., Jain, Y. K.: A high capacitive and confidentiality based image steganography using private stego-key. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Science and Applications, Chennai (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hivrale, S.P., Sawarkar, S.D., Bhosale, V., Koregaonkar, S.: Statistical Method for Hiding Detection in LSB of Digital Images: An Overview. In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 32, pp. 2070–3740. August 2008Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang, H., Geng, G., Xiong, C.: Image steganography using pixel-value differencing. Second International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security, 2009Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu, D.C., Tsai, W.H.: A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing. Pattern Recogn. Lett. 24, 1613–1626 (2003)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang, C.-M., Wu, N.-I., Tsai, C.-S., Hwang, M.-S.: A high quality steganographic method with pixel-value differencing and modulus function. J. Syst. Softw. 81(1), 150–158. ELSEVIER. January (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sherly, A.P., Amritha, P.P.: A compressed video steganography using TPVD. Int. J. Database Manage. Syst. (IJDMS) 2(3), 67–80 (2010) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zaker, N., Hamzeh, A., Katebi, S.D., Samavi, S.: Improving security of pixel value differencing steganographic method. In: IEEE 978-1-4244-6273-5/09/$26.00 ©2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lempel–Ziv–Markov chain algorithm “”.
  14. 14.
    Lempel Ziv Markov algorithm and 7-Zip, “”.
  15. 15.
    The vernam cipher, “”.
  16. 16.
    Das, D., Nath, J., Mukherjee, M., Chaudhury, N., Nath, A.: An integrated symmetric key cryptography algorithm using generalized vernam cipher method and DJSA method: DJMNA symmetric key algorithm. In: Proceedings of IEEE International conference: World Congress WICT-2011 held at Mumbai University, 2011Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Doran, R.W.: The gray code1. J. Univers. Comput. Sci. 13(11), 1573–1597 (2007) Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miroslav G, Jessica J. F., Rui D.: Distortion-free data embedding for images.In: Proceedings of 4th International Workshop, 27–41, (2001) Print ISBN 978-3-540-42733-9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Himakshi
    • 1
  • Harsh Kumar Verma
    • 1
  • Ravindra Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • Charan Kamaljit Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of CSNIT JalandharJalandharIndia
  2. 2.Department of CSESSCET BadhaniBadhaniIndia

Personalised recommendations