Squaring Back off Based Media Access Control for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 259)


Inter-vehicle communications have great potential to induce great interest in research and industry. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) may significantly improve passenger safety and comfort. The deployment of VANETs is a challenging task in weakly interconnected and in highly overloaded networks both. A good back off technique can reduce a large number of collisions in the MAC layer I VANET. This will reduce the collision probability and hence increases the utilization of network resources. A uniform random distribution has been employed to choose the back off value in the Binary Exponential Back off (BEB) technique used in the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. This random choosing VANETs leads to unnecessary idle times and reduced throughput. This paper proposes a new back off technique called “Squaring Back off (SB)” in which the differences between the consecutive contention window sizes are reduced to a negligible value. Here, the value of the back off timer is based on the size of the contention window. The size of the contention window is varied in accordance with the result of the previous transmission. A successful transmission reduces the size of the contention window whereas a failure leads to the increase in the contention window size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed technique provides better throughputs and less idle times than the logarithmic and Fibonacci based techniques when used in a mobile ad-hoc environment. Squaring back off based media access control can prove very useful for vehicular ad-hoc networks.


VANET Contention window IEEE 802.11 Medium access control Vehicular mobile ad-hoc networks 


  1. 1.
    Gobriel, S., Melhem, R., Mosse, D.: BLAM: An energy aware MAC layer enhancement for wireless adhoc networks. In: Proceedings of WCNC04, Atlanta (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ko, Y., Vaidya, N.H.: Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile ad-hoc networks. Wirel. Netw. 6(4), 307–321, (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deng, J., Varshney, P.K., Haas, Z.J.: A new backoff algorithm for the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function. In: Proceedings of CNDS 04, San Diego, CA, 18–21 Jan 2004Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee.: Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications. In: ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.11, 1999 edn. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Manaseer, S., Masadeh, M.: Pessimistic backoff for mobile ad hoc networks. In: ICIT2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Manaseer, S., Ould-Khaoua, M., Mackenzie, L.M.: Fibonacci backoff algorithm for mobile ad hoc network. In: PGNET (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu, J., Raymond, C.D.: A statistics based design of MAC protocols with distributed collision resolution for ad-hoc networks. In: Proceedings of MobiWac05, Hawaii, June 2005Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bani Yassein, M., Ould-Khaoua, M., Papanastasiou, S.: On the performance of probabilistic flooding in mobile ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Performance Modelling in Wired, Wireless, Mobile Networking and Computing in Conjunction with 11th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS-2005), IEEE Computer Society Press, Fukuoka, 20–22 Jul 2005Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bononi, L., Conti, M., Donatiello, L.: A distributed mechanism for power saving in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. ACM MONET J. 6(3), 211–222 (2001) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Divecha, B., Abraham, A., Grosan, C., Sanyal, S.: Impact of node mobility on MANET routing protocols models. J. Digit. Inf. Manage. 5(1), 19 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Taifour, M., Nait-Abdesselam, F., Simplot-Ryl, D.: Neighbourhood backoff algorithm for optimizing bandwidth in single hop wireless ad-hoc networks. In: Proceedings of MobiWac05, Hawaii, June 2005Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Romaszko, S., Blondia, C.: Enhancements of the IEEE 802.11, a MAC protocol for ad hoc network with history of power adjustment. In: Proceedings of MobiWac05, Hawaii, June 2005Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aad, I., Ni, Q., Barakat, C., Turletti, T.: Enhancing IEEE 802.11 MAC in congested enviroments. In: Proceedings of IEEE ASWN, Boston, Aug 2004Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bianchi, G., Fatta, L., Oliveri, M.: Performance evalutation and enhancement of the CSMA/CA MAC protocol for 802.11 wire-less LANs. In: Proceedings of IEEE PIMRC, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 407–411, Oct 1996Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamal Kant Sharma
    • 1
  • Mukul Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Neha Yadav
    • 1
  1. 1.Krishna Institute of Engineering and TechnologyGhaziabadIndia

Personalised recommendations