Eurasianism or Neo-Ottomanism: The Neighborhood in Turkish Foreign Policy



Chapter 4 deals with how the “confronting of the past” that was discussed in the previous chapter becomes significant for an understanding of the present and the future. The notion that Turkey’s promise as a regional and global player is somehow related to historical legacies is not new. This trend is particularly evident with regard to the Armenian, Kurdish, and Alevi questions but also in the surge of popular interest in the final years of the empire and the early years of the republic. This is also reflected in what is now being identified as the “neo-Ottomanist” policy being followed by the ruling AKP in its foreign policy. Internationally, the delay in EU membership and the Armenian chapter of the Ottoman past has proved to be decisive. Domestically this revisiting is said to be associated with the challenge that diverse groups are mounting towards the dominant narrative of national identity which emphasized the unitary, secular character of the Turkish nation state and displayed a staunch commitment to a Western orientation for Turkish identity and foreign policy.


Turkish foreign policy Neo-Ottomanism Eurasianism Central Asia and the Transcaucasus Ottoman cosmopolitanism AKP Ahmet Davutoglu Strategic depth 


  1. Akcali, E., & Perincek M. (2009). Kemalist Eurasianism: An emerging geopolitical discourse in Turkey. Geopolitics, 14(3), 550–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aydin, M. (1996). Turkey and Central Asia: Challenges of change. Central Asian Survey, 15(2), 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aydin, M. (2004, Dec). Turkish foreign policy, framework and analysis. Centre for strategic studies, (SAM Papers No. 1/2004). Ankara.Google Scholar
  4. Baslamis, C. (2001). The last ten years in Eurasia. In I Soysal & S. Aslantepe (Eds.), Turkish views on Eurasia (S. 145–161). Istanbul: The ISIS Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bingol, Y. (1998). Turkey’s policy towards post-Soviet Central Asia: Opportunities and challenges. Eurasian Studies, (14, Summer-Autumn), 2–19.Google Scholar
  6. Cagaptay, S. (2009, Apr 24). The AKP’s foreign policy: The misnomer of Neo-Ottomanism. Turkey Analyst, 2(8)Google Scholar
  7. Cem, I. (2000). Turkey in the new century, speeches and texts presented at the International Fora (1995–2001). Nicosia: Rustem Bookshop.Google Scholar
  8. Colak, Y. (2006). Ottomanism vs Kemalism: Collective memory and cultural pluralism in 1990s Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 42(4), 587–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davutoglu, A. (1997, Dec–1998, Feb). The clash of interests: An explanation of the world (Dis) Order. Perceptions, Journal of International Affairs, II(4).Google Scholar
  10. Davutoglu, A. (2008). Turkey’s new foreign policy vision. Insight Turkey, 10(1).Google Scholar
  11. Devlet, N. (2001). Turkic world and Turkey (perspectives–realities). In I. Soysal (Ed.), Turkish views on Eurasia. Istanbul: The ISIS Press.Google Scholar
  12. Ersanli, B. (1997). Rediscovering multidimensionality: Turkey’s quest for partnership with the Turkic republics. Private VIEW, 1(Winter), 60–64.Google Scholar
  13. Ersanli, B. (2001). Can Eurasia be an identity issue for Turkish foreign policy. In I. Soysal (Ed.), Turkish views on Eurasia. Istanbul: The ISIS Press.Google Scholar
  14. Erşen, E. (2009). Central Asia or ‘Eurasia’?: The ideological and pragmatic factors defining Turkey’s foreign policy in the region. Unpublished paper presented at the ESCAS XI Conference 2009 on “Studying Central Asia: In Quest for New Paths and Concepts”, organized by the Central European University. September 3–5, Budapest, Hungary.Google Scholar
  15. Ertugrul, D. (2012). A test for Turkey’s foreign policy: The Syria crisis. TESEV Foreign Policy Programme.
  16. Fuller, G. (2007). The new Turkish republic: Turkey as a pivotal state in the Muslim world. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  17. Goknar E. (2003). Ottoman past and Turkish future: Ambivalence in A. H. Tanpinar’s Those outside the scene. South Atlantic Quarterly Spring-Summer, 102(2/3).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gul, A. (2004). Turkey: 50 years of diplomatic relations. Foreign Affairs (Moscow), 50(3).Google Scholar
  19. Gurtuna, A. (2006). Turkish-Russian relations in the post Soviet era: From conflict to cooperation. Ankara: Thesis submitted to Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  20. Hill, F., & Taspinar O. (2006). Turkey and Russia: Axis of the excluded. Survival, 48(1), Spring.Google Scholar
  21. Karaveli, H. M. (2010). Will the reversal of the regime of military tutelage encourage a reinvention of Turkey’s secular camp? Turkey Analyst, 3(4).Google Scholar
  22. Karpat, K. H. (1996). The foreign policy of the Central Asian states, Turkey and Iran. In K. H. Karpat (Ed.), Turkish foreign policy, recent developments. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kiniklioglu, S. (2007). The return of Ottomanism. Todays Zaman, March 20.Google Scholar
  24. Koknar, A. M. (2005). Turkey’s security relations in Central Asia. In A. Cohen (Ed.), Eurasia in balance, the US and regional power shift. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  25. Kramer, H. (1996). Will Central Asia become Turkey’s sphere of influence? Perceptions III, 4.Google Scholar
  26. Landau, J. M. (1995). Pan-Turkism: From irredentism to cooperation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Mangitli, U. (2001). Russia, Turkey and Eurasia: Intersection of Turkish and Russian foreign ­policy spheres. Ankara: Thesis submitted to International Relations Department Bilkent University.Google Scholar
  28. Mohapatra, A. K. (2001). Turkey’s quest for a regional role in Central Asia. International Studies, 38(1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moustakis, F., & Ackerman E. (2002a). September 11: A dynamic for Russo-Turkish cooperation or conflict? Central Asian Survey, 21(4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moustakis, F., & Ackerman E. (2002b). September 11: A dynamic for Russo-Turkish cooperation or conflict? Central Asian Survey, 35(4).Google Scholar
  31. Murinson, A. (2006). The strategic depth of Turkish foreign policy. Middle Eastern Studies, 42(6).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Onar, N. F. (2009a). Neo-Ottomanism, historical legacies and Turkish foreign policy. EDAM (Centre for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies). Discussion Paper Series 2009/03.Google Scholar
  33. Onar, N. F. (2009b). Echoes of a universalism lost: Rival representations of the Ottomans in today’s Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 45(2).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Onis, Z. (2011). Multiple faces of the new Turkish foreign policy: Underlying dynamics and a critique. Insight Turkey, 13(1).Google Scholar
  35. Pirincci, M. (2009). Turkish Russian relations in the post Soviet era: Limits of economic interdependence. Ankara: Thesis submitted to Eurasia Studies Programme, Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  36. Safak, E. (2007). Could there be a surprise, Sabah, March 11. Google Scholar
  37. Safrastyan, R. (2005). The concept of Eurasia and Turkey’s regional strategies. Global politician, May 24. web version at
  38. Taspinar, O. (2008a). Turkey’s Middle East policies: Between Neo-Ottomanism and Kemalism. Carnegie Papers, Carnegie Middle East Centre, 10.Google Scholar
  39. Taspinar, O. (2008b). Neo-Ottomanism and Kemalist foreign policy. Today’s Zaman.Google Scholar
  40. Uslu, N. (1966). Turkish foreign policy in the post cold war period. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  41. Wieland, C. (2009). Turkey’s poltical-emotional transition. Open Democracy, October 6.Google Scholar
  42. Winrow, G. M. (1997). Turkey and the newly independent states of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 1(2).Google Scholar
  43. Winrow, G. M.(2001). Turkey and Central Asia. In R. Allison & L. Jonson (Eds.), Central Asian security, the new international context. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs and Brookings Institutional Press.Google Scholar
  44. Winrow, G. (2006). Possible consequences of a new geopolitical game in Eurasia on Turkey as an emerging energy transport hub. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 5(2), Summer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies (MAKAIAS) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian StudiesKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations