Conceptual Discourses



Based on the institutional approach, John Kingdon’s agenda setting model and Howlett and Ramesh’s concept of actors and institutions in the policy process a conceptual framework has been developed for the study. This chapter argues that both rule-based and historical institutionalism are important to understand women’s political participation. Rules shape the structure of an institution, in turn creating an environment where women can easily take part and be involved within the political process or not. On the other hand, a historical view of institutions conveys more information regarding the history of the local government bodies. It is also argued that the problem stream, policy stream, and political stream came together to open a new window for the government, based on which the government responded positively by enactment of the 1997 reform. It is again argued that different State, societal and international actors (the government, the political parties, women’s organizations, NGOs, and donor agencies), and the impact of international conventions created pressure on the process of enactment of the Act of 1997. In addition to theoretical discussion, this chapter operationalizes core concepts of the research, including women’s political participation, reforms and institutional change, and different actors.


Institutional approach New institutionalism Historical institutionalism Rule based institutionalism Agenda setting Actors and institutions in policy process Women’s political participation Reforms Institutional change 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public AdministrationUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh

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