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Pollution of Aqueous Matrices with Pharmaceuticals

  • Kriti Jindal
  • Mallikarjun Narayanam
  • Saranjit SinghEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The world is witnessing an increasing contamination of the environment by pharmaceuticals due to their escalating consumption and recalcitrant nature. Water bodies like rivers, lakes and even surface water have been found to be contaminated with drugs. Exposure to these contaminants is already showing detrimental effects in fish, frogs, birds, etc., with the development of antibiotic-resistant pathogens being another repercussion. Chronic exposure to pharmaceuticals, even in trace quantities, may also affect human health adversely in the long term. Although a decade back it was difficult to provide substantial data for such pollution, the recent development of highly sensitive and specific analytical tools has led to the detection of pharmaceuticals in many drinking water sources also. In this chapter, we discuss various aspects of this issue, beginning with the causes of pollution, the enormity of consequences, types of aquatic sources reported to be contaminated, drugs usually found, and finally the variety of techniques that can be used to detect and characterize pharmaceuticals in aqueous matrices.

Keywords

Contamination Environment Pharmaceuticals Pollution Water 

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kriti Jindal
    • 1
  • Mallikarjun Narayanam
    • 1
  • Saranjit Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical AnalysisNational Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and ResearchS. A. S. NagarIndia

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