A Brief Review on Role of Nanotechnology in Medical Sciences

  • Kirti Vishwakarma
  • O. P. Vishwakarma
  • Mukta Bhatele
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Bioengineering book series (LNBE)

Abstract

Medical nanotechnology or nanomedicine is the medical aspect or application of nanotechnology using different approaches such as nanoelectronic biosensors, nanomaterials, and a very futuristic but underdeveloped molecular nanotechnology that includes molecular manufacturing. Medical nanotechnology aims to provide cheaper yet quality health and medical equipment, facilities, and treatment strategies through continuous researches and studies. A number of pharmaceutical and medical companies all over the world have already adhered to medical nanotechnology because of its numerous benefits and practical uses. Current modalities of diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, especially cancer, have major limitations such as poor sensitivity or specificity and drug toxicities respectively. Newer and improved methods of cancer detection based on nanoparticles are being developed. They are used as contrast agents, fluorescent materials, molecular research tools, and drugs with targeting antibodies. Paramagnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots (qdots), nanoshells, and nanosomes are few of the nanoparticles used for diagnostic purposes. Drugs with high toxic potential like cancer chemotherapeutic drugs can be given with a better safety profile with the utility of nanotechnology. These can be made to act specifically at the target tissue by active as well as passive means. Other modalities of therapy such as heat-induced ablation of cancer cells by nanoshells and gene therapy are also being developed. This review discusses the various platforms of nanotechnology being used in different aspects of medicine. The safety of nanomedicine is not yet fully defined. However, it is possible that nanomedicine in future would play a crucial role in the treatment of human diseases and also in enhancement of normal human physiology.

Keywords

Diagnostics Drugs Nanomedicine Nanotechnology Therapeutics Quantum dot 

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirti Vishwakarma
    • 1
  • O. P. Vishwakarma
    • 2
  • Mukta Bhatele
    • 3
  1. 1.Gyan Ganga Institute of Technology and SciencesJabalpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of NanotechnologyGyan Ganga College of TechnologyJabalpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceGyan Ganga College of TechnologyJabalpurIndia

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