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Melatonin’s Neuroprotective Actions on Hippocampal Neurons

  • Pooja SuhalkaEmail author
  • Chhavi Sharma
  • Neha Jaiswal
  • Piyu Sukhwal
  • Reena Chittora
  • Ayushi Jain
  • Maheep Bhatnagar
Chapter

Abstract

Melatonin is the pineal hormone, is an indoleamine, and has a persuasive role in the biological regulation of circadian rhythm, sleep–mood disorders, immunoregulation, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging. It passively diffuses into the bloodstream, exerting maximum effectiveness and protective action. This protective action is due to direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidative effects, especially in cases of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease whose pathogenesis is associated with the cytotoxic effects of free radicals. Melatonin also promotes neurogenesis in adults, thus affecting hippocampal functions and enhancing cognitive and behavioral activities. Therapeutic trials with melatonin have been effective also in slowing down the progression of some neurodegenerative disorders. Studies suggest that melatonin have clinical potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords

Hippocampus Melatonin Neuroprotection Oxygen free radicals Neurodegenerative diseases Adult neurogenesis 

Abbreviations

4-HNE

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal

Akt

Protein kinase B (PKB)

CA1

Cornu ammonis 1

Ca2+

Calcium2+ ion

CA3

Cornu ammonis 3

CAT

Catalase

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GSH

Reduced glutathione

KA

Kainic acid kainate

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MT1

Melatonin receptor 1

MT2

Melatonin receptor 2

NADPH-d

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartate

nNOS

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase

NO

Nitric oxide

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pooja Suhalka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chhavi Sharma
    • 1
  • Neha Jaiswal
    • 1
  • Piyu Sukhwal
    • 1
  • Reena Chittora
    • 1
  • Ayushi Jain
    • 1
  • Maheep Bhatnagar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity College of Science, MLSUUdaipurIndia

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