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Melatonin and Malaria: Therapeutic Avenues

  • Venkataramanujam SrinivasanEmail author
  • Mahaneem Mohamed
  • Rahimah Zakaria
  • Asma Hayati Ahmad
  • Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh
Chapter

Abstract

Malaria, one of the most deadly diseases of our time, affects more than 200 million people across the globe and is responsible for about one million deaths annually. Besides Plasmodium falciparum which is the main cause for malarial infection in human beings, Plasmodium knowlesi from Malaysia also remains as the most virulent parasite spreading fast not only in Malaysia but also in different parts of the world. Global malaria eradication program by use of insecticide spraying has resulted in good response in the past. Treatment of malaria-infected patients with antimalarial drugs has helped to eliminate malarial infections successfully, but with increased resistance displayed by malarial parasites to these drugs, there is resurgence of malaria caused both by drug resistance and by infection caused by new malarial species like Plasmodium knowlesi. Recent advances on molecular studies on malarial parasites reveal that the pineal hormone melatonin acts as a cue for growth and development of Plasmodium falciparum. Same may be true for Plasmodium knowlesi also. Hence, treatment modalities that can effectively block the action of melatonin on Plasmodium species during nighttime by way of using either bright light therapy or use of melatonin receptor blocking can be considered as useful approaches for eliminating malarial infection in man.

Keywords

Malaria Antimalarial drugs Plasmodium knowlesi Melatonin Luzindole 

Abbreviations

AFMK

N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

DDT

Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane

EM

Erythrocyte membrane

P

Plasmodium

Pcalp

Plasmodium calpain

PCT

Parasite clearance times

PfPK7

Plasmodium falciparum protein kinase 7

PKA

Protein kinase A

PLC

Phospholipase C

PRR

Parasite reduction ratio

PVM

Parasitophorous membrane

RBC

Red blood cell

SERA

Serine repeat antigen (multigene family)

TBD

Transmission-blocking drugs

UPS

Ubiquitin-proteosome protein degradation system

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkataramanujam Srinivasan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mahaneem Mohamed
    • 4
  • Rahimah Zakaria
    • 4
  • Asma Hayati Ahmad
    • 4
  • Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh
    • 5
  1. 1.Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation, An International Medical Sciences Research Study CenterCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.National Health Service, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and TreatmentHospital “G. Mazzini”TeramoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Neuroscience and ImagingUniversity “G.D’ Annunzio”ChietiItaly
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologySchool of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains MalaysiaKubang Kerian, KelantanMalaysia
  5. 5.School of Heath SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang Kerian, KelantanMalaysia

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