Effect of Very Mild Random Tremors on Saturated Sub-surface Flow

  • Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya
  • Debasish KumarEmail author
Conference paper


Very mild random tremors in a saturated soil are not uncommon. Mild earthquakes, nearby piling, and the passage of underground trains all lead to vibrations in a manner that cannot be exactly predicted. High pore pressures and low effective stresses in cohesionless soil can lead to soil liquefaction and complete loss of bearing capacity of the soil. As long as the saturated sub-surface water flow is Darcian, the governing partial differential equation is elliptic in nature at all points in the flow domain. While analytical methods can be used in limited cases, numerical methods are universally available to find out the velocity components and pressure at all points in the flow domain. Tremors disrupt the steady-state flow of saturated sub-surface water. Velocity and pressure patterns vary in a random way. The possibility of saturated sub-surface water pressure mounting followed by soil liquefaction arises. In this chapter, canonical equations related to the finite element method have been considered, and the problem has been analysed.


Mild Random Tremors Sub-surface Flow 


  1. 1.
    Bhattacharya AK (2005) Groundwater flow in a weakly-random hydraulic conductivity field. Electron J Geotech Eng 10, Bundle – E, EJGE Paper 2005–0582Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhattacharya AK, Choudhury S (2001) Uncertainty analysis of groundwater flow during earthquakes. In: Proceedings, all India seminar on disaster management and civil engineering solutions, Calcutta, India, 7–8 Dec 2001Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Choudhury S (2002) Evaluation of seepage under sheet-pile using the finite element method with six-noded triangular elements. ME thesis, Bengal Engineering College (Deemed University), Howrah, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maji S, Mondal S, Bhattacharya AK, Manna MC, Choudhury S (2002) Finite element analysis of flow under a sheet pile. In: Proceedings, international conference on water resource management in arid regions, Kuwait, 23–27 Mar 2002Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mondal S (2001) Finite element analysis of seepage flow under dam. ME thesis, Bengal Engineering College (Deemed University), Howrah, IndiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied MechanicsBengal Engineering and Science UniversityHowrahIndia

Personalised recommendations