Information Processing with Structured Chemical Excitable Medium
It is well known that an excitable medium can be used for information processing with pulses of excitation. In such medium messages can be coded or in the number of pulses or in the sequences of times separating subsequent excitations. Information is processed as the result of two major effects: interactions between pulses and interactions between a pulse and the environment. The properties of excitable medium provide us with a number of features remaining those characterizing biological information processing. For example, pulses of excitation appear as the result of an external stimulus and they can propagate in a homogeneous medium with a constant velocity and a stationary shape dissipating medium energy.
In the paper we focus our attention on a quite specific type of nonhomogeneous medium that has intentionally introduced geometrical structure of regions characterized by different excitability levels. Considering numerical simulations based on simple reaction-diffusion models and experiments with Bielousov-Zhabotinsky reaction we show that in information processing applications the geometry plays equally important role as the dynamics of the medium. A chemical realization of simple information processing devices like logical gates or memory cells are presented. Combining these devices as building blocks we can perform complex signal processing operations like, for example, excitation counting. We also demonstrate that a structured excitable medium can perform sensing functions because it is able to determine a distance separating observer from the source or sense the rate of changes in excitability level. Talking about the perspectives we present ideas for programming information processing medium with excitation pulses.
KeywordsInformation processing excitability BZ-reaction Oregonator
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Feynman, R.P., Allen, R.W., Heywould, T.: Feynman Lectures on Computation. Perseus Books, New York (2000)Google Scholar
- 2.Calude, C.S., Paun, G.: Computing with cells and atoms. Taylor and Francis, London (2002)Google Scholar
- 4.Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Asai, T.: Reaction-Diffusion Computers. Elsevier Science, UK (2005)Google Scholar
- 5.Kapral, R., Showalter, K.: Chemical Waves and Patterns. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (1995)Google Scholar
- 8.Szymanski, J.: Private information (2008)Google Scholar
- 9.Kawczynski, A.L., Legawiec, B.: Two-dimensional model of a reaction-diffusion system as a typewriter. Phys. Rev. E 64, 056202(1-4) (2001)Google Scholar
- 10.Kawczynski, A.L., Legawiec, B.: A two-dimensional model of reaction-diffusion system as a generator of Old Hebrew letters. Pol. J. Chem. 78, 733–739 (2004)Google Scholar
- 18.Gaspar, V., Bazsa, G., Beck, M.T.: The influence of visible light on the Belousov–Zhabotinskii oscillating reactions applying different catalysts. Z. Phys. Chem(Leipzig) 264, 43–48 (1983)Google Scholar
- 26.Sielewiesiuk, J., Gorecki, J.: Chemical impulses in the perpendicular junction of two channels. Acta Phys. Pol. B 32, 1589–1603 (2001)Google Scholar
- 28.Dolnik, M., Finkeova, I., Schreiber, I., Marek, M.: Dynamics of forced excitable and oscillatory chemical-reaction systems. J. Phys. Chem. 93, 2764–2774 (1989); Finkeova, I., Dolnik, M., Hrudka, B., Marek, M.: Excitable chemical reaction systems in a continuous stirred tank reactor. J. Phys. Chem. 94, 4110–4115 (1990); Dolnik, M., Marek, M.: Phase excitation curves in the model of forced excitable reaction system. J. Phys. Chem. 95, 7267–7272 (1991); Dolnik, M., Marek, M., Epstein, I.R.: Resonances in periodically forced excitable systems. J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3218–3224 (1992) Google Scholar
- 35.Lázár, A., Noszticzius, Z., Försterling, H.-D., Nagy-Ungvárai, Z.: Chemical pulses in modified membranes I. Developing the technique. Physica D 84, 112–119 (1995); Volford, A., Simon, P.L., Farkas, H., Noszticzius, Z.: Rotating chemical waves: theory and experiments. Physica A 274, 30–49 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Gorecki, J., Gorecka, J.N.: On mathematical description of information processing in chemical systems. In: Mathematical Approach to Nonlinear Phenomena; Modeling, Analysis and Simulations, GAKUTO International Series, Mathematical Sciences and Applications, vol. 23, pp. 73–90 (2005) ISBN 4762504327Google Scholar