Reconstruction of Nuclear Reprogramming by Defined Factors
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst. The generation of mouse ES cells (Evans et al., 1981; Martin, 1981) resulted in the “knockout mouse” technology (Hooper et al., 1987; Doetschman et al., 1987). The generation of ES cell lines from human blastocyst-stage embryos (Thomson et al., 1998) has opened up the possibility of using these cells in cell transplantation therapies for juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's disease, heart failure, and spinal cord injury. The usage of human embryos and tissue rejection, however, remain a concern for human ES cells. One strategy to overcome such issues is to reprogram the nuclei of differentiated cells to an ES cell-like, pluripo-tent state.
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