Impacts on Natural Ecosystems

  • Masahiko Ohsawa
  • Takashi Eguchi
  • Nobuyuki Tanaka
  • Hiroaki Ikeda
  • Masayuki Nemoto
  • Yoshio Hada


Japan extends over the East Asian monsoon region, covering slightly more than 20° in latitude from 25° North to 45° North, and 3,000 km from north to south. A major characteristic of this entire region is its location in a rain-forest zone, which supports forest growth well. Located in the mid-latitudes where latitudinal gradients in temperature are steep, these forests range from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests to cold-temperate coniferous forests. The mountainous regions in excess of 1,000 meter elevations that form the backbone of Japan serve as migration routes as well as distributional barriers. There are also many instances in which marine straits serve as distributional boundaries, and global warming is anticipated to have a major effect in terms of forced migration of biotas and ecosystems

Topographical features are minute, geology is variegated, and local climates peculiar to mountain terrain are formed on various scales; thus, predictions of ecosystem changes based on macro-scale conditions of temperature change are not by themselves realistic. In addition, numerous cities, roads, rail systems, and other such man-made landscapes in these areas represent distributional barriers of various levels, and realistic predictions are nearly impossible.

While predictions are complicated by the diverse environmental tolerance and migratory capacity that different species possess, general changes in ecosystems in response to environmental change can be predicted on the basis of ecological knowledge on species functions and habits. The formulation of preventive measures will generate a growing demand for such predictions in the future.


Forest Zone Geomorphological Process Glacial Stage Warmth Index Subalpine Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


2.2.1 (Impacts on geomorphological processes of mountains)

  1. Aoyagi, S., A. Ikeda, H. Seki, M. Iwafune, and T. Koizumi, 1989: Debris supply periods estimated from weathering-rind thickness in rubbles on Mt. Yakushidake, the northern Japanese Alps. Proceedings of the General Meeting of the Association of Japanese Geographers, 35, 266–267.Google Scholar
  2. Hirakawa, K. 1977: Chronology and evolution of landforms during the late Quaternary in the Tokachi plain and adjacent areas, Hokkaido, Japan. Catena, 4, 255–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ito, M. and T. Masaki, 1984: Ages of debris supply during Late Pleistocene in the Chigawa Valley, the eastern area of the northern Japanese Alps, Central Japan. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 57A, 282–292.Google Scholar
  4. Iwata, S., 1980: Types and intensity of the processes in the high mountain region of Shirouma dake, the Japan A . Jour. Geogr., 89, 319–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Iwata, S., 1983: Physiographic conditions for the rubble slope formation on Mt. Shirouma-dake, the Japan Alps. Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University, 18, 1–51.Google Scholar
  6. Katoh, S., 1991: Development of marine and fluvial terraces since the Last Interglacial along the Shizunai and Niikappu rivers in the western Hidaka district, Hokkaido. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 64A, 71–94.Google Scholar
  7. Koaze, T., 1977: Fossil periglacial features. In Japanese Association for Quaternary Researched.) The Quaternary Period: Recent Studies in Japan, University of Tokyo Press, 163–170.Google Scholar
  8. Koaze, T., 1983: Slow mass movement in periglacial regions. Trans. Jpn. Geomorphol. Union, 4, 189–203.Google Scholar
  9. Koaze, T., M. Nogami and S. Iwata, 1974: Paleoclimatic significance of fossil periglacial phenomena in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Quat. Res. (Tokyo), 12, 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koizumi, T., 1990: Development of alpine plant communities in the Japanese Alps, in relation to slope development since the Last Glacial Age. Abstract of International Congress of Ecology, Yokohama, 84.Google Scholar
  11. Koizumi, T. and H. Seki, 1988: Debris supply during the last glacial age estimated from weathering-rind thickness in rubbles on Mt. Kisokomagatake and its surroundings. Proceedings of the General Meeting of the Association of Japanese Geographers, 33, 112–113.Google Scholar
  12. Koizumi T. and H. Seki, 1991: Four stage debris supply periods and plant succession on Mt. Shirouma, the northern Japanese Alps. Proceedings of the General Meeting of the Association of Japanese Geographers, 39, 26–27.Google Scholar
  13. Koizumi, T. and O. Yanagimachi, 1982: Periglacial debris-production at the main ridge of the Central Japan Alps (Kiso Mountain Range). Quat. Res. (Tokyo), 20, 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Machida, H., 1980: Tephra and its implications with regard to the Japanese Quaternary Period. Geography of Japan, Teikoku-shoin, 29–53.Google Scholar
  15. Maejima, I. and Y. Tagami, 1982: Climatic variability and climatic disasters between the 7th and 19th century. Chiri, 27(12), 33–43.Google Scholar
  16. Miyagi, T., K. Hibino and T. Kawamura, 1979: Processes of hillslope denudation and environmental changes during the Holocene around Sendai, northeast Japan. Quat. Res.(Tokyo), 18, 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miyagi, T., K. Hibino, T. Kawamura, and K. Nakagami, 1981: Hillslope development under changing environment since 20,000 years B.P. in northeast Japan. Science Report Tohoku University. 7th ser. Geography, 31, 1–14.Google Scholar
  18. Noda, A. and T. Tokioka, 1989: The effect of doubling theCO2 concentration on convective and non-convective precipitation in a general circulation model coupled with a simple mixed layer ocean model. Jour. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67, 1057–1069.Google Scholar
  19. Oguchi, T., 1988: Landform development during the Last Glacial and the Post-Glacial Ages in the Matsumoto basin and its surrounding mountains, Central Japan. Quat. Res. (Tokyo), 27, 101–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oguchi, T., 1992: Responses of drainage basins to the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic change: Japan and other mid-latitude regions. Bull. Dept. Geogr. Univ. Tokyo, 24, 51–73.Google Scholar
  21. Oguchi, T., 1994a: Late Quaternary geomorphic development of alluvial fan-source basin systems: the Yamagata region, Japan. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 67B, 81–100.Google Scholar
  22. Oguchi, T., 1994b: Late Quaternary geomorphic development of mountain river basins based on landform classification: the Kitakami region, Northeast Japan. Bull. Dept. Geogr. Univ. Tokyo, 26, 15–32.Google Scholar
  23. Oguchi, T., 1996: Factors affecting the magnitude of post-glacial hillslope incision in Japanese mountains. Catena, 26, 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ono, Y. and K. Hirakawa, 1975: Glacial and periglacial morphogenetic environments around the Hidaka Range in the Wurm Glacial age. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 48, 1–26.Google Scholar
  25. Ohmori, H. and O. Yanagimachi, 1988: Thermal conditions both of the upper and lower limits of the Fagus crenata forest zone, and changes in summer temperature from the latest Pleistocene to the middle Holocene in Japan. Quat. Res. (Tokyo), 27, 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sakaguchi, Y., 1983: Warm and cold stages in the past 7600 years in Japan and their global correlation — Especially on climatic impacts to the global sea level changes and the ancient Japanese history-. Bull. Dept. Geogr. Univ. Tokyo, 15, 1–31.Google Scholar
  27. Sakaguchi, Y. and H. Sohma, 1982: Characteristics of bank and hollow complexes in the Ozegahara moor. Ozegahara: Scientific Researches of the Highmoor in Central Japan, 31–46.Google Scholar
  28. Seki, H. 1986: Periglacial rubble slope on Mt. Chogatake, the northern Japanese Alps. Gakugei-Chiri, 40, 29–40.Google Scholar
  29. Shimizu, C., 1983: Fossil periglacial slopes on the Chichibu Mountains, Central Japan. Geogr.Rev. Japan, 56, 521–534.Google Scholar
  30. Shimizu, C., 1989: Vertical change of slope stability from Last Glacial to early Holocene in the southern part of the Yubari Mountains and the western part of the Hidaka range, Hokkaido, Japan. Quat. Res. (Tokyo), 28, 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sohma, H., 1984: Changes in stability of mountain slopes of Yakushima Island analyzed by variation of inorganic content in peat deposits. Jour. Geogr., 93, 371–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sohma, H., 1988: Changes in stability of mountain slopes in the alpine and sub-alpine region of Mt. Shirouma Dake, the northern Alps, analyzed by the profiles of slope materials in the alpine zone and the variation of the decomposition degree of plant fossils in peat deposits. Studies in Geography, Nara Women’s University, III, 73–103.Google Scholar
  33. Sohma, H., 1989: The decomposition degrees of plant fossils by sieving with water and the inorganic contents in peat deposits. Annual Report of Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, the Faculty of letters, Nara Women’s University, 32, 23–47.Google Scholar
  34. Sohma, H., S. Okazawa and S. Iwata 1979: Slow mass-movement processes in an alpine region of Mt. Shirouma Dake, the Japan Alps. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 52, 562–579.Google Scholar
  35. Sugai, T., 1992: River terrace development since the Middle Pleistocene along the Usui river in the Kanto district, Japan. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 65A, 339–353.Google Scholar
  36. Sugai, T., 1993: River terrace development by concurrent fluvial processes and climatic changes. Geomorphology, 6, 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suzuki, H., 1962: Southern limit of peri-glacial landform at low level and the climatic classification of the latest Ice Age in Japan. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 35, 67–76.Google Scholar
  38. Suzuki, I., 1992: Movements of surface gravels on bare ground in the Tanigawa Mountains, central Japan, showing the relationship between periglacial and non-periglacial processes. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 65A, 75–91.Google Scholar
  39. Takada, M., 1986: Fossil periglacial smooth slopes and fossil nivation hollows along the main ridge in the Mikuni Mountains, Central Japan. Geogr. Rev. Japan, 59A, 729–749.Google Scholar
  40. Toyoshima, M., 1984: The sequence of river terrace development in the last 20,000 years in the Ou Backbone Range, northeastern Japan. Science Report Tohoku University. 7th ser. Geography, 34, 88–105.Google Scholar
  41. Watanabe, M., 1991: Chronology of the fluvial terrace surfaces in the Kitakami Lowland, Northeast Japan, and the fluctuations of debris supply during the Late Pleistocene. Quat. Res. (Tokyo), 30, 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamakawa, S. 1992: Climatic disaster in the midst of a global warming. Chiri, 37(8), 31–41.Google Scholar
  43. Yamamoto, K., 1989: Chronology of Holocene periglacial slope deposits in the Northern Hidaka Mountains, Hokkaido, Japan. Quat. Res. (Tokyo), 28, 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yasuda, Y. 1982: A study on the distribution of paleoclimate in Japan based on the palynological results. Kikogaku-kishogaku Kenkyu Hokoku (University of Tsukuba), 5, 17–19.Google Scholar
  45. Yoshino, M. 1987: Climatic change and its prediction: The climatic change since the Last Glacial Age and the problems of prediction of the climate in ten thousand years, a thousand years and a hundred years. In Japan Association for Quaternary Research (ed.) Quaternary research looks at the future of nature in Japan, Kokon-Shoin, 60–80.Google Scholar

2.2.2 (Impacts on forest distribution)

  1. Austin, M.P., A.O. Nicholls and C.R. Margules, 1990: Measurement of the realized qualitative niche: Environmental niches of five Eucalyptus species. Ecol. Monogr. 60, 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fang, J.Y. and K. Yoda, 1989: Climate and vegetation in China. II. Distribution of main vegetation types and thermal climate. Ecological Research, 4, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Group for the Study on Ecology of Natural Forest, 1972: Vegetation of the natural forest of Kyoto University Forest in Ashiu. Bull. Kyoto Univ. For. 43, 33–52. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  4. Hamet-Ahti, L., T. Ahti and T. Koponen, 1974: A scheme of vegetation zones for Japan and adjacent regions. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 11, 59–88.Google Scholar
  5. Honda, S., 1922: A treatise on Japanese forest zones. Miura Shoten, Tokyo. Revised 4th ed., 400pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Ishikawa, S., 1983. Ecological studies on the floodplain vegetation in the Tohoku and Hokkaido districts, Japan. Ecological Review, 20, 73–114.Google Scholar
  7. Ishizawa, S., 1978: Climatic factors affecting the distribution of snow-camellia (Camellia rusticana Honda). In: Plant Ecology to the Memory of Dr. Kuniji Yoshioka, Society of Tohoku Plant Ecology, Sendai, 296–308. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. Ishizuka, K. 1947: The distribution of the evergreen broadleaf trees in Tohoku, Japan and the Korean Peninsula. Ecological Review, 10(2), 98–100.Google Scholar
  9. Ishizuka, K., 1974: Mountain Vegetation. In: The Flora and Vegetation of Japan, (ed. M. Numata), Kodansha & Elsevier, 173–210.Google Scholar
  10. Ishizuka, K., 1978: Subalpine vegetation of Japan affected by heavy snowfall. In: Plant Ecology to the Memory of Dr. Kuniji Yoshioka, Society of Tohoku Plant Ecology, Sendai, 404–428. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. Ishizuka, M. and S. Sugawara, 1989: Composition and structure of natural mixed forests in Central Hokkaido (II) Effect of disturbance on the forest vegetation pattern along the topographic moisture gradients. J. Jpn. For. Soc, 71, 89–98.Google Scholar
  12. Leathwick, J.R., 1995: Climatic relation of some New Zealand forest tree species. J. Veg. Sci., 6, 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaji, M., 1982: Studies on the ecological geography of subalpine conifers: distribution pattern of Abies mariesii in relation to the effect of climate in the postglacial warm period. Bull. Tokyo Univ. For., 72, 31–120. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  14. Kajimoto, T., N. Kurachi, Y. Yukihiro, H. Utsugi and M. Ishizuka., 1996: Effects of external factors on growth and structure of Pinus pumila scrub in Mt. Kinpu. In: Climate change and plants in East Asia (ed. K. Omasa et al.), Springer, 149–156.Google Scholar
  15. Kashimura, T., 1974: Ecological study on the montane forests in the southern Tohoku district of Japan. Ecological Review, 18(1), 1–56.Google Scholar
  16. Kashimura, T., 1978: On the decreasing process of frost hardiness in Fagus crenata, Quercus mongolica var grosseserrata and Quercus serrata in the spring. In: Plant Ecology to the Memory of Dr. Kuniji Yoshioka, Society of Tohoku Plant Ecology, Sendai, 450–465. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Kikuchi, T and O. Miura, 1993: Vegetation patterns in relation to micro-scale landforms in hilly land regions. Vegetatio, 106, 147–154.Google Scholar
  18. Kira, T., 1948: On the altitudinal arrangement of climatic zones in Japan. Kanti-Nogaku, 2, 143–173. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Kira, T., 1949: Forest zones of Japan. Ringyou-gizyutu-Kyoukai, Tokyo, 41pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Kira, T., 1977: A climatological interpretation of Japanese vegetation zones. In: Vegetation Science and Environmental Protection (ed. A. Miyawaki and R. Tuexen), Maruzen, Tokyo, 21–30.Google Scholar
  21. Kira, T., 1995: Forest ecosystems of East and South-east Asia in a global perspective. In: Vegetation Science in Forestry (ed. E.O. Box et al. ), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1–21.Google Scholar
  22. Kira, T. and M. Yoshino, 1967: Distribution of Japanese conifer species along thermal gradient. In: Natural history: ecological studies, Contribution in honor of Dr. Kinji Imanishi on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, I, (ed. M. Morishita & T. Kira), Chuokoron-sha, Tokyo, 133–161. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. Kume, A. and C. Tanaka, 1996: Adaptation of stomatal response of Camellia rusticana to a heavy snowfall environment: Winter drought and net photosynthesis. Ecological Research, 11, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kure, H. and K. Yoda, 1984: The effects of the Japan Sea climate on the abnormal distribution of Japanese beech forests. Jpn. J. Ecol., 34, 63–73.Google Scholar
  25. Maeda, T., 1951: Sociological study of Chamaecyparis obtusa forest and its Japan-sea elements. Miscellaneous Information, Tokyo Univ. For., 8, 21–44. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  26. Miyawaki, A., S. Okuda and K. Suzuki., 1975: Potential natural vegetation map of Japan. In: Studies in conservation of natural terrestrial ecosystems in Japan, JIBP Synthesis Vol.8 (ed. M. Numata et al. ), 22–23, Univ. of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  27. Miyawaki, A. and K. Suzuki, 1976: Vegetation der Dunen und der Korallenbauten auf den Ryukyu-Inseln. Bull. Inst. Envir. Sci. Tech. Yokohama Natn. Univ., 10, 75–111. (in German)Google Scholar
  28. Nakanishi, S. and T. Nishimoto., 1981: A study on forest zones in the Chugoku Mountains with a clue of the altitudinal distribution of the oak forest and beech forest in Mt. Mikawa. Hikobia Suppl., 1, 413–424. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  29. Niiyama, K., 1987: Distribution of salicaceous species and soil texture of habitats along the Ishikari River. Jpn. J. Ecol. 37, 163–174. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  30. Niiyama, K., 1989: Distribution of Chosenia arbutifolia and soil texture of habitats along the Satsunai River. Jpn. J. Ecol., 39, 173–182. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  31. Numata, M., 1974: The flora and vegetation of Japan. Kodansha, Tokyo & Elsevier, Amsterdam, 294pp.Google Scholar
  32. Ohmori, H., 1983: Characteristics of the erosion rate in the Japanese mountains from the viewpoint of climatic geomorphology. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 46, 1–14.Google Scholar
  33. Ohsawa, M., 1990: An interpretation of latitudinal patterns of forest limits in South and East Asian mountains. J. Ecol., 78, 326–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ohsawa, M., 1991: Structural comparison of tropical montane rain forests along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in south and east Asia. Vegetatio, 97, 1–10.Google Scholar
  35. Ohsawa, M., 1993a. Latitudinal pattern of mountain vegetation zonation in southern and eastern Asia. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ohsawa, M., 1993b: Vegetation and climate in eastern Asia. Kagaku, 63(10), 664–672. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Ohsawa, M., P.H.J. Nainggolan, N. Tanaka and C. Anwar., 1985: Altitudinal zonation of forest vegetation on Mount Kerinci, Sumatra: with comparison to zonation in the temperate region of east Asia. J. Trop. Ecol., 1, 193–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Okitsu, S., 1985: Consideration on vegetational zonation based on the establishment process of a Pinus pumila zone in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Jpn. J. Ecol., 35, 113–121.Google Scholar
  39. Okitsu, S. and K. Ito. 1984. Vegetation dynamics of the Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila Regel) in the Taisetsu mountain range, Hokkaido, Japan. Vegetatio, 58, 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Omasa, K., K. Kai, H. Taoda, Z. Uchijima and M. Yoshino, 1996: Climate change and Plants in East Asia. Springer, 215pp.Google Scholar
  41. Onodera, H., H. Tanabe, T. Kajimoto and H. Daimaru, 1995: Snow dynamics and ecological characteristics of trees on snowy mountain slope. Jpn. J. For. Environment, 37, 59–66. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  42. Ozaki, K and M. Ohsawa, 1995: Successional change of forest pattern along topographical gradients in warm-temperate mixed forests in Mt Kiyosumi, central Japan. Ecological Research, 10, 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Saito, K., 1971: Ecological approaches to the study of forest distribution in Mt. Hakkoda, Northeast Japan, with special reference to the soil condition. Ecological Review, 17(4), 217–271.Google Scholar
  44. Sakai, A., 1976: Adaptation of plants to deposited snow. Low Temp. Ser.B, 34. 7–76. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  45. Sakai, A., 1982: Plant cold hardiness and adaptation to coldness: Physiological ecology in winter. Gakkai-Shuppan Center, Tokyo, 469pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  46. Sakai, A., 1995: The plant distribution and environmental adaptation: From the tropics to the polar zone and desert. Asakura-Shoten, Tokyo. 164pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  47. Sakai, A. and W. Larcher, 1987: Frost survival of plants. Springer, 321pp.Google Scholar
  48. Sakai, A. and M. Ohsawa, 1993: Vegetation pattern and microtopography on a landslide scar of Mt. Kiyosumi, central Japan. Ecological Research, 8, 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sakai, A. and M. Ohsawa, 1994: Topographical pattern of the forest vegetation on a river basin in warm-temperate hilly region, central Japan. Ecological Research, 9, 269–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sato, H., 1988. The structure and habitat of Pterocarya rhoifolia forest in Matsumae Peninsula, Southern Hokkaido. Jpn. J. For. Environment, 30(1), 1–9. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  51. Shidei, T., 1974a: Clinate and distribution of vegetation zones, In: The Flora and Vegetation of Japan, (ed. M. Numata), Kodansha and Elsevier, 20–27.Google Scholar
  52. Shidei, T., 1974b: Forest vegetation zones. In: The Flora and Vegetation of Japan, (ed. M. Numata), Kodansha and Elsevier, 87–121.Google Scholar
  53. Sugita, H., 1992: Ecological geography of the range of the Abies mariesii forest in northeast Honshu, Japan, with special reference to the physiographic conditions. Ecological Research, 7, 119–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Suzuki, S., 1964. The range of the genus Sasa Makino et Shibata. Hikobia, 4, 95–102. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  55. Suzuki, T., 1952. Forest vegetation in East Asia. Kokon-shoin, Tokyo, 137pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  56. Swanson, F.J., T.K. Kratz, N. Caine and R.G. Woodmansee, 1988: Landform effects on ecosystem patterns and processes. BioScience, 38, 92–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Takahashi, K., 1960: Plant distribution and snowcover. Jpn. J. For. Environment, 2(1), 19–24. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  58. Tanaka, N., 1986: Habitat of the Fagus crenata-Abies mariesii forest. Bull. Tokyo Univ. For., 75, 119–140. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  59. Tanaka, N., 1987: Environmental factors affecting the regeneration of the Fagus crenata-Abies mariesii forest. Bull. Tokyo Univ. For., 76, 197–212. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  60. Tanaka, N. and H. Taoda, 1996: Expansion of elevational distribution of beech (Fagus crenata Blume) along the climatic gradient from the Pacific Ocean to the Sea of Japan in Honshu, Japan. In: Climate change and plants in East Asia (ed. K. Omasa et al.), Springer, 175–184.Google Scholar
  61. Tanaka, J., 1887: Report on the vegetation zones in Japan (proofread version). Geography Office, the Department of the Interior, Japan. 176+10pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  62. Uemura, S., 1989: Snowcover as a factor controlling the distribution and speciation of forests plants. Vegetatio, 82, 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Usui, H., 1958: Forest vegetation in the boundary area between the Pacific-type and the Japan Sea-type climate: Forest vegetation in Oku-Nikko except Mt. Nantai. Jpn. J. For., 40, 332–342. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  64. Usui, H., 1961: Phytosociological revision of the dominant species of Sasa-type undergrowth. Spec. Bull. Coll. Agric. Utsunomiya Univ., 11, 1–35. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  65. Watanabe, S., 1994: Specia of trees. University of Tokyo Press. 450pp. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  66. Watanabe, S., M. Tanaka and I. Wakatuki, 1966: Practice of site index survey. Nihonn-Ringyo-Tyosakai. 233pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  67. Whittaker, R.H., 1956: Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecol. Monog., 28, 1–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yamanaka, T., 1979: Forest vegetation in Japan. Tsukiji-Shokan, Tokyo. 219pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  69. Yim, Y. and T. Kira, 1975: Distribution of forest vegetation and climate in the Korean Peninsula. I. Distribution of some indices of thermal climate. Jpn. J. Ecol., 25, 77–88.Google Scholar
  70. Yoshioka, K., 1973: Plant geography (Handbook of Ecology 12). Kyoritu-Shuppan, Tokyo. 84pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  71. Yoshioka, K. and T. Kaneko, 1963: Distribution of plant communities on Mt. Hakkouda in relation to topography. Ecological Review, 16(1), 71–81.Google Scholar
  72. Yoshino, M., 1978: Altitudinal vegetation belts of Japan with special reference to climatic conditions. Arctic Alpine Research, 10, 449–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.3 (Impacts of global warming on grasslands in Japan)

  1. Division of Plant Communities, Committee of Protection of Plant Species and Communities in Japan, 1996: Red Data Book of Plant Communities in Japan. NACS-J/WWF Japan. 1344+(106)pp.Google Scholar
  2. Fukuyama, M., 1991: CO2-climate changes and grassland/forage production. Agr. Hortic., 66, 164–170.Google Scholar
  3. Fukuyama, M., H. Harada, and T. Kanno, 1995: Growth of orchardgrass under doubleCO2 concentration, 2: changes in chemical composition of tissues. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 41(B), 49–50.Google Scholar
  4. Hayashi, I., 1994: Experimental community ecology in Miscanthus sinensis grassland: change of species composition according to mowing frequency. Jpn. J. Ecol. 44, 161–170.Google Scholar
  5. Ikeda, H. and K. Okutomi, 1990: Effects of human trampling and multispecies competition on early-phase development of a tread community. Ecol. Res., 5, 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ikeda, H. and K. Okutomi, 1992: Effects of species interaction on community organization along a trampling gradient. J. Veg. Sci., 3, 217–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. IPCC Working Group II, 1996: Rangelands in a changing climate: impacts, adaptations, and mitigation. In Watson, R.T. et al. (eds.), Climate Change 1995, 131–158, Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ishida, R., N. Nishimura, and T. Suyama, 1980: Criteria in planning grassland development. 5. Soil erosion in sloping grasslands. Bull. Natl. Grassl. Res. Inst. (Japan), 17, 1–10.Google Scholar
  9. Itow, S., 1962: Grassland vegetation in uplands of western Honshu, Japan, 1: distribution of grasslands. Jpn. J. Ecol., 12, 123–129.Google Scholar
  10. Itow, S., 1963: Grassland vegetation in uplands of western Honshu, Japan, 2: Succession and grazing indicators. Jpn. J. Bot., 18, 133–167.Google Scholar
  11. Japan Meteorological Agency, 1994: Report on the Extreme Climate ′94. Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, 444pp.Google Scholar
  12. Kawamoto, Y., T. Kinjyo, M. Ikeda, E. Miyagi, F. Hongo, and Z. Koja, 1992: Clipping effects on seasonal dry matter production and nutritive values of tall type grass species of tropical forage. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 38, 141–151.Google Scholar
  13. Kawashima, H. 1996: Food and national security: world food balance regarding Asian economical development. Agricultural Technology, 51, 247–250.Google Scholar
  14. Kitajima, S., 1983: Soil loss in native pastures along slopes. Bull. Kyushu Natl. Agr. Exp. Station, 23, 77–94.Google Scholar
  15. Koizumi, H., Y. Usami, and M. Satoh, 1993: Carbon dynamics and budgets on three upland double-cropping agro-ecosystems in Japan. Agr. Ecosystems Environ., 43, 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kubota, F., W. Agata, and E. Kamata, 1972: Dry matter production of forage plants, V: examination of the equations for calculating the amount of dry matter production. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 18, 277–282.Google Scholar
  17. Kubota, F., W. Agata, and E. Kamata, 1973: Dry matter production of forage plants, XI: influence of air temperature and radiation on the dry matter production of orchardgrass sward. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 19, 292–301.Google Scholar
  18. Mariko, S., T. Okuda, and A. Furukawa, 1994: Interactive effects ofCO2 and nitrogen resources on shoot development of Chenopodium album L. and Amaranthus patulus Bertol. Weed Research (Japan), 39, 213–221.Google Scholar
  19. Mayeux, H.S., H.B. Johnson, and H.W. Polley, 1991: Global change and vegetation dynamics. In James, J.F. et al. (eds.), Noxious Range Weeds, 62–74, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  20. Nashiki, M., T. Nomoto, and N. Harashima, 1983: Actual condition and related factors of deterioration and soil erosion of pasture in co-operative livestock farms (Japan). Bull. Natl. Grassl. Res. Inst. (Japan), 24, 1–13.Google Scholar
  21. Nature Conservation Bureau, Environmental Agency of Japan, 1994: Report of the Vegetation Survey of the 4th Investigation for Nature and Environmental Conservation in Japan. Japan Environmental Agency, 390pp.Google Scholar
  22. Nishimura, N., 1988: Disturbance and vegetational succession in grassland. In Yano, N. (ed.), Vegetation in Japan: Ecology of Invasion and Disturbance, 129–136, Tokai Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  23. Nemoto, M., 1979: Ecological characteristics of important weed species in sown meadows: the response of tall-growing weeds to cutting. Weed Research (Japan), 24, 12–18.Google Scholar
  24. Numata, M., 1969: Progressive and retrogressive gradient of grassland vegetation measured by degree of succession. Vegetatio, 19, 96–127.Google Scholar
  25. Numata, M. and M. Mitsudera, 1969: Efficient environmental factors to the growth and production of the Miscanthus sinensis grassland in Japan, V: ecological judgment of grassland condition and trend. Jpn. J. Bot., 20, 135–151.Google Scholar
  26. Ohtsuka, T. and M. Ohsawa, 1994: Accumulation of buried seeds and establishment of ruderal therophytic communities in disturbed habitat, central Japan. Vegetatio, 110, 83–96.Google Scholar
  27. Oku, T., H. Kirita, S. Takahashi, and M. Shibayama, 1994: Budget of CO2 in pasture: observation of CO2 flux using the Eddy correlation method. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 40(B), 343–344.Google Scholar
  28. Okuda, T., 1987: The distribution of C3 and C4 graminoids on the semi-natural grassland of southwestern Japan. J. Jpn. Grassl. Sci., 33, 175–184.Google Scholar
  29. Saigusa, N., S. Liu, T. Oikawa, and T. Watanabe, 1996: Seasonal change in CO2 and H20 exchange between grassland and atmosphere. Ann. Geophysicae, 14, 342–350.Google Scholar
  30. Sasaki, H. and T. Suyama, 1994: Prediction of variability in forage productivity caused by global warming. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 40(B), 159–160.Google Scholar
  31. Shimada, Y., S. Kawanabe, R. Kayama, and S. Itow, 1973: Grassland Ecology. Tsukiji Shokan, 287+vi. ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Shimamura, M., T. Tomii, and M. Ushiyama, 1987: Herbage production of grassland in Alpine Region Branch National Grassland Research Institute situated at southern slope of Mt. Asama, central Japan, III: relationships between meteorological conditions and herbage production over three seasons during a year on a meadow dominated by orchardgrass. Bull. Natl. Grassl. Res. Inst. (Japan), 36, 54–65.Google Scholar
  33. Shimizu, N., 1992: Increase of alien weed in forage fields and its mitigation. Research Report on Forage Crops and Grasses in Kanto, 16, 19–29.Google Scholar
  34. Shimizu, N., T. Nishida, J. Uozumi, and N. Harashima, 1994: Invasion processes and expansion mechanisms of the alien weeds into grassland and cropland in Japan. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 40(B), 331–332.Google Scholar
  35. Statistics and Information Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1996: Pocket Book for Statistics of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan. Association of Agriculture and Forestry, Japan. 429+(36)pp.Google Scholar
  36. Suyama, T., 1988: Climate change and grassland production/livestock breeding. Meteorological Research Note (Meteorological Society of Japan), 162, 123–129.Google Scholar
  37. Suyama, T., Y. Yamamoto, A. Shoji, H. Sasaki, S. Shibata, N. Yoshida, M. Fukuyama, and T. Kanno, 1995: Prediction of summer dead zone of grassland in Japan caused by global warming. Information on Agroenvironmental Research, 11, 61–62, Natl. Inst. Agroenvironm. Sci.Google Scholar
  38. Tamura, K., I. Hayashi, and H. Iwaki, 1986: Changes of soil properties in early stages of secondary succession in cool temperate region in Japan. Acta Oecologica, 7, 75–85.Google Scholar
  39. Watanabe, K., J. Ogata, and S. Saiga, 1992: Seasonal changes in productivity and quality of temperate grasses and the fluctuations with years, 1: changes of daily dry matter production. J. Jpn. Soc. Grassl. Sci., 37, 458–467.Google Scholar

2.4 (Desertification: Effects on Japan across national borders)

  1. General Assessment of Progress in the Implementation of Plan of Action to Combat Desertification, 1984: UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme).Google Scholar
  2. Harazono, Y., S. Li, J. Shen and Z. He, 1993: Seasonal meteorological changes over a grassland in Inner Mongolia.J. Agric. Meteorol., 48, 711–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Harazono, Y., S. Li, and G. Shen, 1994: Seasonal changes in albedo and micrometeorological conditions on vegetation in a semi-arid area in Inner Mongolia, China. JARQ, 28, 79–89.Google Scholar
  4. Itabe, T., K. Mizutani, M. Takabe, Y. Ling, and J. Zhou, 1995: Measurements of atmospheric dust and sand profiles, Studies on transportation of sand particles and accumulation in the desert, JC-JOSDES Phaze 2 Report. Research and Development Bureau, Science and Technology Agency Japan.Google Scholar
  5. Nemoto, M., 1993: Recent situation of desertification in China from the viewpoint of vegetation changes. J. of Arid Land Studies, 3, 149–156.Google Scholar
  6. Miyata, A., Y. Harazono, J. Shen and S. Li, 1993: Turbulent transfer of momentum, water vapor and carbon dioxide over a dune and a grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. J. Agric. Meteorol, 48, 715–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1992: UNEP.Google Scholar

2.5 (Impacts on wetlands)

  1. Hada, Y., 1991a: Changes of vegetation at central part of mire, Changes of vegetation in the Senjogahara mire, Tochigi pref., Japan. 5–15. NACS-J.Google Scholar
  2. Hada, Y., 1991b: Some knowledges obtained from cultivation of Sphagnum species, Changes of vegetation in the Senjogahara mire, Tochigi pref., Japan. 5–15, NACS-J.Google Scholar
  3. Hukusima, T. and Y. Kazama, 1985: Ecological studies on changing pattern of the moor into dry land in Senjogahara, Nikko National Park (I). Kobayashi Akira kyoujyu taikankinen ronbunsyuu, 229–267.Google Scholar
  4. Hukusima, T., 1988: Ecological studies on changing pattern of the moor into dry land in Senjogahara, Nikko National Park II. The development of secondary drainage patterns and their local effects on the vegetation of Senjogahara moor. J. Phytogeogr. and Taxon., 26(2), 101–112.Google Scholar
  5. Hukusima, T., 1991: Changes of vegetation at marginal part of mire, Changes of vegetation in the Senjogahara mire, Tochigi pref., Japan. 5–15, NACS-J.Google Scholar
  6. Kubota, H., Y. Matsuda and Y. Hada, 1978: Vegetation and flora of Senjogahara moor of Nikko, 132pp. Tochigi pref.Google Scholar
  7. Kurauchi, H, M. Ophira, Y. Ikeda and T. Nakanishi, 1990: Science report of the Imou mire, Aichi pref., Japan. The board of education of Toyohashi city.Google Scholar
  8. Kurauchi, H., and T. Nakanishi, 1993: Naturally growing area of Drosera anglica Hudson, Science report of vegetation and restrational experiment. The board of education of Toyohashi city.Google Scholar
  9. Matsuda, Y. and K. Itou, 1987: Changes of vegetation during the years from 1976 to 1986 in the Senjogahara mire, Tochigi pref., Japan., Papers on plant ecology and taxonomy to the memory of Dr. Satoshi Nakanishi, 431–442. The Kobe Geobotanical Society.Google Scholar
  10. Suzuki, H., 1977: A comparison of occurrence of mire plants between 1960 and 1974 on the Yashimagahara high moor. Bull. of the botanical society of Nagano, 10, 30–35.Google Scholar
  11. Suzuki, H., N. Yano, Y. Matsuda, Y. Hada, S. Nakagawa, T. Bando and N. Takenaka, 1981: Vegetation of Kirigamine, 60pp, The board of education of Suwa city.Google Scholar
  12. Tachibana, H., 1976: Changes and revegetation in Sphagnum moors destroyed by human treading. Ecological review, 18(3), 133–210.Google Scholar
  13. Tachibana, H., T. Kashimura, T. Higuchi and A. Oosuga, 1982: Revegetation in the Oze moor IX, Report of conservational undertaking of Fukushima pref. No.57, (Conservation of Oze and its restration XIII), 1–5.Google Scholar
  14. Tachibana H., T. Takanashi and Y. Ozaki, 1988: Changes of bog vegetation and soil conditions of Ukijima mire induced by human tramping. Reports of the Taisetsuzan institute of science, 23, 37–55.Google Scholar
  15. Tachibana, H., D. Hayashi and K. Saito, 1989: Changes of vegetation of Tennyogahara mire in the Taisetsu mountains induced by human treading. Reports of the Taisetsuzan institute of Science, 24, 37–50.Google Scholar
  16. Yano, N., M. Fuse and E. Kito, 1971: Vegetation of Kirigamine, 60pp, The board of Education of Suwa city.Google Scholar
  17. Yano, N. ed., 1986: Report of Iris laevigata Fisch. community of the Kotsutsuminishi-ike national natural monument. 58pp, The board of education of Kariya city.Google Scholar
  18. Yano, N. ed., 1987: Report of Iris laevigata Fisch. community of the Kotsutsuminishi-ike national natural monument II. 91pp, The board of education of Kariya city.Google Scholar
  19. Yano, N. ed., 1990: Report of Iris laevigata Fisch. community of the Kotsutsuminishi-ike national natural monument III. 58pp, The board of education of Kariya city.Google Scholar
  20. Yano, N. ed., 1992: Report of Iris laevigata Fisch. community of the Kotsutsuminishi-ike national natural monument IV. 60pp, The board of education of Kariya city.Google Scholar

2.6 (Impacts on biodiversity and nature conservation areas)

  1. Barry, R.G. and R. Chorley, 1992: Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Sixth ed. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  2. Da, L-J. and M. Ohsawa, 1992: Abandoned pine-plantation succession and the influence of pine mass-dieback in the urban landscape of Chiba, central Japan. Japanese Journal of Ecology, 42, 81–93.Google Scholar
  3. Davis, M.B. 1981: Quaternary history and the stability of forest communities. In: West, D.C. and H.H. Shugart, eds., Forest Succession, 132–153.Google Scholar
  4. Davis, M.B. 1989: Lags in vegetation response to greenhouse warming. Climate Change, 15, 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis, S.D., S.J.M. Droop, P. Gregeson, L. Henson, C.J. Leon, J.L. Villa-Lobos, H. Synge, and J. Zantovska, 1986: Plants in danger. What do we know? IUCN Gland.Google Scholar
  6. Delcourt, H.R. and P.A. Delcourt, 1991: Quaternary Ecology. A paleoecological perspective. Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Grime, J.P. 1979: Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. John Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  8. Harris, L.D. 1984: The Fragmented Forest. The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hasegawa, M. 1995: Rana japonica in valley-bottom paddy fields in the Kanto plain. In: Ohsawa M. and T. Ohara, eds., Natural History in the Southern Kanto Plain, 105–112, Asakura Shoten, Tokyo, (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Hatusima, S. 1991: Flora of the northern Ryukyus. Asahi-Insatsu-Shoseki-Shuppan Co. Kagoshima.Google Scholar
  11. Iida, S. and T. Nakashizuka, 1995: Forest fragmentation and its effect on species diversity in sub-urban coppice forests in Japan. Forest Ecology and Management, 73, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishizuka, K. 1961: A relict stand of Picea glehni Masters on Mt. Hayachine, Iwate Prefecture. Ecol. Rev., 15, 155–162.Google Scholar
  13. Maekawa, F. 1974: Origin and Characteristics of Japan’s Flora. In: Numata, M. ed., The Flora and Vegetation of Japan. 33–86.Google Scholar
  14. Melillo, J.M., Callagham, T.V., Woodward, I.F., Salati, E. and Sinha, S.K. 1990: Effects on ecosystems. In Climate Change: the IPCC Scientific Assessment, 131–172. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. NACS-J and WWF Japan Division of Plant Species, Committee on Plant Species and Communities 1989: Red Data Book of Plant Species in Japan. NACS-J and WWF Japan.Google Scholar
  16. NACS-J and WWF Japan Division of Plant Communities, Committee on Plant Species and Communities 1996 Red Data Book of Plant Communities in Japan. NACS-J and WWF Japan.Google Scholar
  17. Ohsawa, M. 1990: An interpretation of latitudinal patterns of forest limits in south and east Asian mountains. Journal of Ecology, 78, 326–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ohsawa, M. 1993: Latitudinal pattern of mountain vegetation zonation in southern and eastern Asia. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ohsawa, M. 1995: Latitudinal comparison of altitudinal changes in forest structure, leaf-type, and species richness in humid monsoon Asia. Vegetatio, 121, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ohsawa, M. 1995: Human modification of vegetation and conservation of biodiversity. In: Ohsawa M. and T. Ohara, eds., Natural History in the Southern Kanto Plain, 190–198. Asakura Shoten, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Ohsawa, M. and Da, Liang-Jun 1987: Urbanization and landscape dynamics in a watershed of the Miyako river, Chiba, Japan. In Obara, H. ed., Integrated Studies in Urban Ecosystems as the Basis of Urban Planning (II), 187–197.Google Scholar
  22. Ohsawa, M. and Nitta, I. 1997: Northern distribution of evergreen trees and its conservation implications in a changing mountain Environment in east Asia. Proceedings CNPPA-EA.Google Scholar
  23. Omasa, K., K. Kai, H. Taoda, Z. Uchijima, and M. Yoshino, 1996: Climate Change and Plants in East Asia. Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Schwartz, M.W., 1992: Modelling effects of habitat fragmentation on the ability of trees to respond to climatic warming. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shugart, H.H. and D.L. Urban, 1989: Factors affecting the relative abundance of forest tree species. In Grubb, P.J. and J.B. Whittaker, eds., Toward a More Exact Ecology, 249–273. Blackwell Sci. Publ.Google Scholar
  26. Tallis, J.H. 1991: Plant Community History. Long-term changes in plant distribution and diversity. Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  27. Tsukada, M. 1980: History of Cryptomeria japonica during the last 15,000 years. Kagaku, 50, 538–546.Google Scholar
  28. Tsukada, M. 1982: Late-Quaternary shift of Fagus distribution. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 95, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Uchijima, Z., H. Seino, and M. Nogami, 1992: Probable shifts of natural vegetation in Japan due to CO2-climatic warming. In Ecological Processes in Agro-Ecosystems, NIAES Series No. 1, 189–201.Google Scholar
  30. Yasuhara, K., H. Oku, and N. Tanaka, 1994: The present Situation of the conservation of biotic communities in forest reserve system. Zoen-zasshi, 57, 193–198.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masahiko Ohsawa
    • 1
  • Takashi Eguchi
    • 2
  • Nobuyuki Tanaka
    • 3
  • Hiroaki Ikeda
    • 4
  • Masayuki Nemoto
    • 4
  • Yoshio Hada
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceChiba UniversityInage-ku, ChibaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Humanities and EconomicsKochi UniversityKochiJapan
  3. 3.Forestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukuba-Norin, IbarakiJapan
  4. 4.National Institute of Agro-Environmental SciencesTsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  5. 5.Dept. of Information and Computer EngineeringOkayama University of ScienceOkayama, OkayamaJapan

Personalised recommendations