Flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba

  • Kunijiro Yoshitama


The leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used from ancient times to protect books from blight by inserting them between pages. Because of this insecticidal use and its pharmacological usefulness, many reports of the chemical constituents in the plants have been published. These chemical investigations have led to the isolation and characterization of such unique compounds as biflavones and lactonic terpenes (ginkgolide and bilobalide).


Cell Suspension Culture Ginkgo Biloba Flavonol Glycoside Ginkgo Extract Flavonoid Constituent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baker W, Ollis WD (1961) Biflavonyls. In: Ollis WD (ed) Recent developments in the chemistry of natural phenolic compounds. Pergamon, New York pp 152–184Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Furukawa S (1932) Studies on the constituents of “Ginkgo biloba L.” leaves. Part. I. Sci Papers Ins Phys Chem Res (Tokyo) 19: 27–38Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Furukawa S (1933) Studies on the constituents of “Ginkgo biloba L.” leaves. Part. IV. Sci Papers Ins Phys Chem Res (Tokyo) 21: 278–285Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakazawa K (1941) A study of the structure of flavone Ginkgetin in the leaves from Ginkgo biloba (in Japanese). J Pharm Soc Jpn 61: 174–184Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nakazawa K (1941) An alkaline degradation of Ginkgetin (in Japanese). J Pharm Soc Jpn 61: 228–229Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baker W, Simmonds WHC (1940) Derivatives of 5:6:4 and 5:8:4′- trihydroxyflavones, and a note on the structure of ginkgetin. J Chem Soc 1370–1374Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baker W, Flemons GF (1948) The structure of ginkgetin. Part I. Synthesis of 5:8- dihydroxy-4′-methoxyflavone. J Chem Soc 2138–2143Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baker W, Flemons GF, Winter R (1949) The structure of ginkgetin. Part II. New syntheses of 5:8-dihydroxy-4′-methoxyflavone. J Chem Soc 1560–1562Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baker W, Finch ACM, Ollis WD, Robinson KW (1959) Biflavonyls, a new class of natural product. The structures of ginkgetin, isoginkgetin and sciadopitysin. Proc Chem Soc 91 - 92Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baker W, Finch ACM, Ollis WD, Robinson KW (1963) The structures of the naturally occurring biflavonyls. J Chem Soc 1477–1490Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nakazawa K (1959) Synthesis of ginkgetin tetramethyl ether. Chem Pharm Bull 7: 748–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nakazawa K, Ito M (1963) Syntheses of ring-substituted flavonoids and allied com-pounds. X. Synthesis of ginkgetin. Chem Pharm Bull 11: 283–288Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miura H, Kihara T, Kawano N (1969) Studies on biflavones in the leaves of Podocarpus macrophylla and Pnagi. Chem Pharm Bull 17: 150 - 154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Joly M, Haag-Berrurier M, Anton R (1980) La 5′-méthoxybilobétine, une biflavone extraite du Ginkgo biloba. Phytochemistry 19: 1999–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Briançon-Scheid F, Guth A, Anton R (1982) High-performance liquid chromatography of biflavones from Ginkgo biloba L. J Chromatogr 245: 261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Briançon-Scheid F, Lobstein-Guth A, Anton R (1983) HPLC separation and quanti¬tative determination of biflavones in leaves from Ginkgo biloba. Planta Medica 49: 204–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pietta PG, Mauri PL, Rava A (1988) Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chro¬matographic method for the analysis of biflavones in Ginkgo biloba L. extracts. J Chromatogr 437: 453–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pietta PG, Mauri PL, Manera E, Ceva PL, Rava A (1989) An improved HPLC determination of flavonoids in medicinal plant extracts. Chromatographia 27: 509–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xiao SC, Wu YZ, Wen MZ, Ren WJ, Chen PQ (1990) Preparative process of flavones from Ginkgo bioba L. leaves. Chin J Pharm 21: 340–341Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pan JX, Zhang HY, Yang XB (1995) Biflavones from the testa of Ginkgo biloba L. (in Chinese). J Plant Resources and Environment 4: 17–21Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Geiger H, Beckmann S (1965) Über das Vorkommen von Rutin und Kämpferol-3- rhamnoglucosid in Ginkgo biloba L. Z Naturforsch 20b: 1139 - 1140Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Geiger H (1979) 3′-0-Methylmyricetin-3-rhamnoglucosid, ein neues Flavonoid aus dem Herbstlaub von Ginkgo biloba L. Z Naturforsch 34c:878–879Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Victoire C, Haag-Berrurier M, Lobstein-Guth A, Balz JP, Anton R (1988) Isolation of flavonol glycosides from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Medica 54: 245–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nasr C, Haag-B errurier M, Lobstein-Guth A, Anton R (1986) Kaempferol coumaroyl glucorhamnoside from Ginkgo biloba. Phytochemistry 25: 770–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nasr C, Lobstein-Guth A, Haag-B errurier M, Anton R (1987) Quercetin coumaroyl glucorhamnoside from Ginkgo biloba. Phytochemistry 26: 2869–2870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nasr CG (1987) „Eude chimique de substances originales du Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoacées); dérivés flavoniques (hétérosides-esters) et quinoléins carboxyliques; essais pharmacologiques préliminaires.“, Thèse de Doctorat, Université Louis Pasteur, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vanhaelen M, Vanhaelen-Fastré R (1989) Flavonol triglycosides from Ginkgo biloba. Planta Medica 55: 202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hasler A, Gross GA, Meier B, Sticher O (1992) Complex flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Phytochemistry 31: 1391–1394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vanhaelen M, Vanhaelen-Fastré R (1988) Countercurrent chromatography for isolation of flavonol glycosides from Ginkgo biloba leaves. J Liq Chromatogr 11: 2969–2975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Verotta L, Lolla E, Moggi A (1991) Improvement in the separation of two Ginkgo biloba coumaroyl flavonoids. Fitoterapia 62: 339–341Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hasler A, Sticher O, Meier B (1990) High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of five widespread flavonoid aglycones. J Chromatogr 508: 236–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lobstein A, Rietsch-Jako L, Haag-Berrurier M, Anton R (1991) Seasonal variations of the flavonoid content from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Medica 57: 430–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pietta PG, Mauri PL, Bruno A, Rava A, Manera E, Ceva P (1991) Identification of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L., Anthémis nobilis L. and Equisetum arvense L. by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array UV detector. J Chromatogr 553: 223–231Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pietta PG, Mauri PL, Rava A, Sabbatini G (1991) Application of micellar electroki- netic capillary chromatography to the determination of flavonoid drugs. J Chromatogr 549: 367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pietta P, Facino RM, Carini M, Mauri P (1994) Thermospray liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry of flavonol glycosides from medicinal plants. J Chromatogr 661: 121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hasler A, Sticher O, Meier B (1992) Identification and determination of the flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 605: 41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schrall R, Becker H (1977) Produktion von Catechinen und oligomeren Proanthocyanidinen in Callus- und Suspensionkulturen von Crataegus monogyna, C. oxyacantha und Ginkgo biloba. Planta Medica 32: 297–307Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stafford HA, Kreitlow KS, Lester HH (1986) Comparison of proanthocyanidins and related compounds in leaves and leaf-derived cell cultures of Ginkgo biloba, L Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco, and Ribes sanguineum Pursh. Plant Physiol 82:1132- 1138Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stafford HA, Lester HH (1985) The conversion of (+)-dihydromyricetin to its flavan-3,4-diol (leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-gallocatechin by reductases extracted from tissue cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Plant Physiol 78: 791–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stafford HA, Lester HH, Weider RM (1987) Histochemical assay of proanthocyanidin heterogeneity in cell culture. Plant Science 52: 99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kunijiro Yoshitama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Science, Faculty of ScienceKumamoto UniversityKumamoto 860Japan

Personalised recommendations