Advertisement

Hydrocephalus pp 248-256 | Cite as

Clinical Significance of ICP Measurement in Infants Part I: Normal Intracranial Pressure

  • Shigetaka Anegawa
  • Takashi Hayashi
  • Ryuichiro Torigoe

Summary

Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored in 32 infants with an aplanation transducer while they were either awake or asleep. When they were conscious, the baseline pressure was 85.0 ± 10.3 mmH2O and various types of activity affecting ICP were noted. During non REM sleep, the baseline pressure was 89.3 ± 12.9 mmH2O and no large waves were seen except for fine oscillations recorded at 30 mmH2O above the ICP level. In the REM period, infants older than 2.5 months showed ICP wave forms similar to the A and B waves described by Lundberg. The amplitude of ICP waves from normal infants correlated to their age until they were about 5 months old.

In this paper we present the characteristics of ICP in normal infants. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of pressure waves during the REM period.

Keywords

Intracranial pressure Aplanation principle Normal infant Baseline pressure Pressure wave 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brennan RW, Patterson RH, Kessler J (1971) Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during cardiopulmonary bypass: Evidence of microembolic encephalopathy. Neurology 21: 665–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chawla JC, Hulme A, Cooper R (1974) Intracranial pressure in patients with dementia and communicating hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 40: 376–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooper R, Hulme A (1966) Intracranial pressure and related phenomena during sleep. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 29: 564–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Di Rocco C, McLone DG, Shimoji T, Raimondi AJ (1975) Continuous intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid pressure recording in hydrocephalic children during wakefulness and sleep. J Neurosurg 42: 683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Donn SM, Philip AGS (1978) Early increase in intracranial pressure in preterm infants. Pediatrics 61: 904–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Edwards J (1974) An intracranial pressure tonometer for use on neonates. Preliminary report. Dev Med Child Neurol (Suppl) 16: 38–39Google Scholar
  7. Gabriel M, Helmin V, Albani M (1980) Sleep-induced PO2 changes in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 134: 153–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Garfunkel JM, Baird HW, Ziegler J (1954) The relationship of oxygen consumption to cerebral functional activity. J Pediatr 44: 64–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gucer G, Viernstein LJ (1979) Intracranial pressure in the normal monkey while awake and asleep. J Neurosurg 51: 206–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayashi T, Kuramoto S, Honda E, Anegawa S (1987) A new instrument for noninvasive measurement of intracranial pressure through the anterior fontanel. I. Preliminary report. Nerv Syst Child 3: 151–155Google Scholar
  11. Hernandez MJ, Brennan RW, Vannucci RC, Bowman GS (1978) Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in the newborn dog. Am J Physiol 234: 209–215Google Scholar
  12. Hernandez MJ, Brennan RW, Bowman GS (1980) Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the newborn dog. Brain Res 184: 199–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Langfitt TW, Kassell NF, Weinstein JD (1965) Cerebral blood flow with intracranial hypertension. Neurology (NY) 15: 761–773Google Scholar
  14. Lou HC, Lassen NA, Friis-Hansen B (1979) Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the distressed newborn infant. J Pediatr 94: 118–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lundberg N (1960) Continuous recording and control of ventricular fluid pressure in neurosurgical practice. Acta Psychiatr Scand 33 (Suppl 149): 1–193Google Scholar
  16. Martin G (1978) Lundberg’s B waves as a feature of normal intracranial pressure. Surg Neurol 9: 347–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Myerberg DZ, York C, Chaplin ER, Gregory GA (1980) Comparison of noninvasive and direct measurement of intracranial pressure. Pediatrics 65: 473–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Pierre-Kahn A, Gabersek V, Hirsch J (1976) Intracranial pressure and rapid eye movement sleep in hydrocephalus. Childs Brain 2: 156–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rahilly PM (1980) Effect of sleep state and feeding on cranial blood flow of the human neonate. Arch Dis Child 55: 265–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Reivich M, Isaacs G, Evarts E, Kety S (1968) The effect of slow wave sleep and REM sleep on regional cerebral blood flow in cat. J Neurochem 15: 301–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Robinson RO, Rolfe P, Sutton P (1977) Non-invasive method for measuring intracranial pressure in newborn infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 19: 305–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Salmon JH (1981) Intracranial pressure. Am J Dis Child 135: 502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Shapiro CM, Rosendorff C (1975) Local hypothalamic blood flow during sleep. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 39: 365–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sharp FR, Schwartz WJ (1977) Proposed effect of brain noradrenaline on neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow during REM sleep. Experientia 33: 1618–1620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Symon L, Dorsch NWC, Stephens RJ (1972) Pressure waves in so-called low-pressure hydrocephalus. Lancet II: 1291–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Townsent RE, Printz PN, Obrist WD (1973) Human cerebral blood flow during sleep and waking. J Appl Physiol 35: 620–625Google Scholar
  27. Vidyasagar D, Raju TNK (1977) A simple noninvasive technique of measuring intracranial pressure in the newborn. Pediatrics 59: 957–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Wealthall SR, Smallwood R (1974) Method of intracranial pressure via the fontanelle without puncture. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37: 88–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Welch K (1980) The intracranial pressure in infants. J Neurosurg 52: 693–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shigetaka Anegawa
  • Takashi Hayashi
  • Ryuichiro Torigoe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryInstitute of Neurosciences, St. Mary’s HospitalKurume, Fukuoka, 830Japan

Personalised recommendations