Advertisement

Anisotropic Behavior in Viscoelasticity and Fracture Mechanics of Compact Bone

  • Yuji Tanabe
Conference paper

Summary

This chapter deals with the in vitro techniques for the determination of viscoelastic properties and fracture toughness of compact bone. The reliability and feasibility of these techniques have been validated through numerical simulation and experiments on bovine compact bone. The method using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique was able to sharply reduce the time required for computation to find viscoelastic parameters, and this could be an alternative method to conventional creep and stress relaxation experiments. Young’s modulus of compact bone was experimentally determined as a function of orientation applying the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Young’s modulus is considered to be dominated by the microstructural arrangement of the mineral phase such as the directions of the c-axes of hydroxyapatite crystals in bone, and the previous model in terms of the unidirectional continuous fibre-reinforced composite theory was unable to obtain a good corresponding prediction to the experimental result. Fracture toughness tests have revealed anisotropic and rate-dependent behaviour in the critical stress intensity factor, K C , of compact bone. The existence of a fracture process zone due to microcrack initiation ahead of the main crack front has been demonstrated. Its contribution to the improvement of the resistance to crack growth or fracture has been discussed also. These findings have helped us to understand the optimum microstructure of compact bone as well as to develop more sophisticated biomaterials such as bone-analogue materials.

Key words

Compact bone Mechanical properties Anisotropy Viscoelasticity Fracture toughness 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bonfield W (1991) Bioactive materials for bone replacement. Med Bio Eng Comput 29 (Suppl 1):47Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tanabe Y, Kobayashi K, Sakamoto M, Hara T, Takahashi HE (1994) Identification of the dynamic properties of bone using the split-Hopkinson pressure-bar technique. In: Kambic HE, Yokobori AT Jr (eds) Biomaterials’ mechanical properties ASTM STP 1173. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp 127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lindholm US (1964) Some experiments with the split Hopkinson pressure bar. J Mech Phys Solids 12:317–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tanabe Y, Tanner KE, Bonfield W (1994) Dynamic mechanical analysis of bovine cortical bone (Abstract) Second World Cong Biomech, Amsteldam, The Netherlands, 1:45Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Currey JD (1969) The relationship between the stiffness and the mineral content of bone. J Biomech 2:477–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bonfield W, Grynpas MD (1977) Anisotropy of Young’s modulus of bone. Nature 270:453–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sasaki N, Matsushima N, Ikawa T, Yamamura H, Fukuda A (1989) Orientation of bone mineral and its role in the anisotropic mechanical properties of bone-transverse anisotropy. J Biomech 22:157–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Komatsubara K, Tanabe Y, Hara T (1994) Effects of crack length and specimen thickness on fracture toughness of bone (Abstract) Second World Cong Biomech, Amsteldam, The Netherlands, 2:234Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    American Society for Testing and Materials (1993) Standard test method for plane strain fracture toughness testing of metallic materials. ASTM annual book of standards, section 3, designation E399–90, pp 509–539Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vashishth D, Trifonas J, Behiri JC, Bonfield W (1994) Secondary crack propagation in cortical bone. Proc 1994 Eng Sys Des Anal Conf 4:37–41Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tanabe Y, Tanner KE, Bonfield W (1996) Impact fracture toughness of bovine compact bone (in Japanese). J Jpn Soc Clin Biomech Relat Res 17:337–341Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Homma H, Shockey DA, Murayama Y (1983) Response of cracks in structural materials to short pulse loads. J Mech Phys Solids 31:261–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuji Tanabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan

Personalised recommendations