Regulation of Germline Stem Cells in the Teleost: Gametogenesis, Sex, and Fecundity
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Stem cells are generally defined as the cells that retain themselves while they keep producing differentiating cells. Presence and regulation of stem cells are, therefore, essential for maintaining homeostasis of the tissue. In the gonad, germline stem cells are responsible for producing a tremendous number of gametes at the appropriate time during a reproductive period. In addition, it was recently revealed in teleost fish Medaka that regulation of germline stem cells is related to some other aspects of reproduction. The intrinsic mechanism that determines whether to produce sperm or eggs begins to act in germline stem cells, and the proliferation of germline stem cells causes sex reversal against the direction of the sex determination gene. Furthermore, germline stem cells seem to be involved in fecundity through regulation of the germ cell number and size of regulation. This chapter provides an overall picture of germline cells and discusses their novel roles, which have been mainly revealed through the analysis of the Medaka.
KeywordsSex determination Sex reversal Germ cells Medaka
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