On the Making of Endocasts: The New and the Old in Paleoneurology

  • Ralph L. HollowayEmail author
Part of the Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans Series book series (RNMH)


Making endocasts with latex rubber has been around for many years. This chapter describes my methods which were not original and some of the experiences encountered. Other methods, using plaster of Paris, various silicon-based rubbers, and Admold (dental caulk), for sectioned crania are examined and their relative merits and problems compared, such as damage to original specimens, deterioration with time (especially with latex rubber), and tensile strength of silicon-based molds. The resolution is as good as it can get, compared to “virtual” endocasts. These older methods have largely been succeeded by the making of “virtual” endocasts through various scanning procedures, with numerous advantages such as being noninvasive of original fossil specimens, immediate coordinates for morphometric analyses, scan data sharing and replication, and production of actual virtual endocasts through 3-D printing.


Brain endocasts Latex Silicon Dental caulk “Virtual” endocasts 


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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