Risky Behaviors in Life: A Focus on Young People

  • Ying Jiang
  • Junyi Zhang


This chapter describes risky behaviors in daily life, especially focusing on young people. Driving while intoxicated, speeding, and illegal drug use are examples of risky behaviors, which often compromise health, quality of life, or life itself. People perform some risky behaviors consciously while they do others unconsciously. This chapter first depicts some typical theories of risky behaviors, including Heinrich’s domino model, problem behavior theory, social development model, life history theory, and lifetime utility theory. Next, it illustrates young people’s risky driving by reviewing risk homeostasis theory, applications of theory of planned behavior, influences of social networks and other persons, avoidance driving, mood during driving and driving purpose, driving and nightlife, and self-driving cars. Literature review suggests that there are some common factors (not only psychological factors, but also life choices and various habits formed in daily life) affecting different types of risky behaviors, suggesting that risky behaviors tend to covary and effects of one risky behavior may spill over to influence other risky behaviors. These imply that measures to prevent a risky behavior should jointly target multiple risky behaviors based on an integrated approach over a long period.


Young people Problem behavior Social development model Life history theory Risky driving behavior Avoidance driving Self-driving cars Influences of family and peers 


  1. Ajzen I (1988) Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Dorsey, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50:179–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen I (2011) The theory of planned behavior: reactions and reflections. Psychol Health 26(9):1113–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen JP, Brown BB (2008) Adolescents, peers, and motor vehicles: the perfect storm? Am J Prev Med 35:S289–S293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson JM, Kalra N, Stanley KD, Sorensen P, Samaras C, Oluwatola OA (2014) Autonomous vehicle technology: a guide for policymakers. RAND Corporation. Available: Accessed 29 May 2016
  7. Baron SW, Forde DR, Kay FM (2007) Self-control, risky lifestyles, and situation: the role of opportunity and context in the general theory. J Crim Justice 35(2):119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Basch CE, DeCicco IM, Malfetti JL (1989) A focus group study on decision processes of young drivers: reasons that may support a decision to drink and drive. Health Educ Q 16:389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beck KH, Shattuck T, Raleigh R (2001a) Parental predictors of teen driving risk. Am J Health Behav 25(1):10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beck KH, Shattuck T, Raleigh R (2001b) A comparison of teen perceptions and parental reports of influence on driving risk. Am J Health Behav 25(4):376–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becoña Iglesias E, López-Durán A, Fernández Del Río E, Martínez Pradeda Ú, Osorio López J, Fraga Ares J, Arrojo Romero M, López Crecente F, Domínguez González MN (2011) Drunkenness, driving and sexual relations in young cocaine and ecstasy users. Adicciones 23(3):205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belgiawan PF, Schmocker J-D, Abou-Zeid M, Walker J, Lee T-C, Ettema DF, Fujii S (2014) Car ownership motivations among undergraduate students in China, Indonesia, Japan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Taiwan, and USA. Transportation 41(6):1227–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianchi A, Summala H (2004) The “genetics” of driving behavior: parents’ driving style predicts their children’s driving style. Accid Anal Prev 36:655–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bina M, Graziano F, Bonino S (2006) Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence. Accid Anal Prev 38(3):472–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bingham CR, Shope JT, Raghunathan T (2006) Patterns of traffic offenses from adolescent licensure into early young adulthood. J Adolesc Health 39(1):35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolderdijk JW, Knockaert J, Steg EM, Verhoef ET (2011) Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers’ speed choice: Results of a Dutch field experiment. Accid Anal Prev 43:1181–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowen M (1978) Family therapy in clinical practice. Jason Aronson, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Brijs K, Brijs T, Sann S, Trinh TA, Wets G, Ruiter RAC (2014) Psychological determinants of motorcycle helmet use among young adults in Cambodia. Transp Res Part F 26:273–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buckley L, Chapman RL (2016) Characteristics of adolescents who intervene to stop the risky and dangerous behavior of their friends. Accid Anal Prev 88:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calafat A, Blay N, Juan M, Adrover D, Bellis MA, Hughes K, Stocco P, Siamou I, Mendes F, Bohrn K (2009a) Traffic risk behaviors at nightlife: drinking, taking drugs, driving, and use of public transport by young people. Traffic Inj Prev 10(2):162–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calafat A, Adrover-Roig D, Blay N, Juan M, Bellis M, Hughes K, Mendes F, Kokkevi A (2009b) Which young people accept a lift from a drunk or drugged driver? Accid Anal Prev 41(4):703–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Calafat A, Blay NT, Hughes K, Bellis M, Juan M, Duch M, Kokkevi A (2011) Nightlife young risk behaviours in Mediterranean versus other European cities: are stereotypes true? Eur J Pub Health 21(3):311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Casley SV, Jardim AS, Quartulli AM (2013) A study of public acceptance of autonomous cars. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Bachelor ThesisGoogle Scholar
  24. Castanier C, Deroche T, Woodman T (2013) Theory of planned behavior and road violations: the moderating influence of perceived behavioural control. Transp Res Part F 18:148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Catalano RF, Kosterman R, Hawkins JD, Newcomb MD, Abbott RD (1996) Modeling the etiology of adolescent substance use: a test of the social development model. J Drug Issues 26(2):429–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cestac J, Paran F, Delhomme P (2011) Young drivers’ sensation seeking, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control and their roles in predicting speeding intention: how risk-taking motivations evolve with gender and driving experience. Saf Sci 49(3):424–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chan DCN, Wu AMS, Hung EPW (2010) Invulnerability and the intention to drink and drive: an application of the theory of planned behavior. Accid Anal Prev 42:1549–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chorlton K, Conner M, Jamson S (2012) Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: An application of an extended theory of planned behaviour. Accid Anal Prev 49:142–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chung YS (2015) Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: the effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions. Accid Anal Prev 82:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chung YS, Wong JT (2012) Beyond general behavioral theories: structural discrepancy in young motorcyclist’s risky driving behavior and its policy implications. Accid Anal Prev 49:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chung EK, Choe B, Lee JE, Lee JI, Sohn YW (2014) Effects of an adult passenger on young adult drivers’ driving speed: roles of an adult passenger’s presence and driving tips from the passenger. Accid Anal Prev 67:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cieslik M, Simpson D (2013) Key concepts in youth studies. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Cristea M, Paran F, Delhomme P (2013) Extending the theory of planned behavior: the role of behavioral options and additional factors in predicting speed behavior. Transp Res Part F: Traffic Psychol Behav 21:122–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dahlen ER, Martin RC, Ragan K, Kuhlman MM (2005) Driving anger, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness in the prediction of unsafe driving. Accid Anal Prev 37(2):341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DeJoy DM (1989) The optimism bias and traffic accident risk perception. Accid Anal Prev 21:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Desrichard O, Roché S, Bègue L (2007) The theory of planned behavior as mediator of the effect of parental supervision: a study of intentions to violate driving rules in a representative sample of adolescents. J Saf Res 38(4):447–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diene E, Lucas R (1999) Personality and subjective well-being. In: Kahneman D, Diener E, Schwarz N (eds) Well-being: the foundations of hedonic psychology. Russell-Sage, New York, pp 213–229Google Scholar
  38. Diener E (1994) Assessing subjective well-being: progress and opportunities. Soc Indic Res 31(2):103–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Diener E (2009) The science of well-being. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Donovan JE (1993) Young adult drinking-driving: behavioral and psychosocial correlates. J Stud Alcohol 54(5):600–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dunkel CS, Decker M (2010) Convergent validity of measures of life-history strategy. Personality Individ Differ 48:681–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Elliott DS (1994) Serious violent offenders: onset, developmental course, and termination: the American Society of Criminology 1993 Presidential Address. Criminology 32:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Feinberg ME, Ridenour TA, Greenberg MT (2007) Aggregating indices of risk and protection for adolescent behavior problems: the communities that care youth survey. J Adolesc Health 40:506–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Feinberg ME, Sakuma K-L, Hostetler M, McHale SM (2013) Enhancing sibling relationships to prevent adolescent problem behaviors: theory, design and feasibility of siblings are pecial. Eval Program Plan 36:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ferguson SA, Williams AF, Chapline JF, Reinfurt DW, De Leonardis DM (2001) Relationship of parent driving records to the driving records of their children. Accid Anal Prev 33:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fleiter JJ, Watson B (2005) The speed paradox: the misalignment between driver attitudes and speeding behavior. In: Proceedings of the Australasian road safety research, policy and education conference. Wellington, New Zealand, 14–16 Nov 2005Google Scholar
  47. Fleiter JJ, Lennon A, Watson B (2010) How do other people influence your driving speed? Exploring the ‘who’ and the ‘how’ of social influences on speeding from a qualitative perspective. Transp Res Part F 13(1):49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Friedman A (2013) Adverse events and risky behaviors: evidence from adolescents. Job Market Paper, Harvard University. Accessed 31 Jan 2016
  49. Gardner W (1993) A life-span rational-choice theory of risk taking. In: Bell RW, Bell NJ (eds) Adolescent risk taking. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, pp 66–83Google Scholar
  50. Gauld CS, Lewis I, White KM (2014) Concealed texting while driving: what are young people’s beliefs about this risky behaviour? Saf Sci 65:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gheorghiu A, Delhomme P, Felonneau ML (2015) Peer pressure and risk taking in young drivers’ speeding behavior. Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav 35:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gnardellis C, Tzamalouka G, Papadakaki M, Chliaoutakis JE (2008) An investigation of the effect of sleepiness, drowsy driving, and lifestyle on vehicle crashes. Transp Res Part F 11(4):270–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guppy A (1993) Subjective probability of accident and apprehension in relation to self-other bias, age, and reported behavior. Accid Anal Prev 25:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guttman N (2013) “My son is reliable”: young drivers’ parents’ optimism and views on the norms of parental involvement in youth driving. J Adolesc Res 28(2):241–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gwyther H, Holland C (2015) An intervention encouraging planned self-regulation and goal setting in drivers across the lifespan: Testing an extended theory of planned behaviour. J Transp Health 2(2):289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hanna EZ, Yi H, Dufour MC, Whitmore CC (2001) The relationship of early-onset regular smoking to alcohol use, depression, illicit drug use, and other risky behaviors during early adolescence: results from the youth supplement to the third national health and nutrition examination survey. J Subst Abuse 13:265–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Harre N (2000) Risk evaluation, driving, and adolescents: a typology. Dev Rev 20(2):206–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hatfield J, Fernandes R, Soames Job RF (2014) Trill and adventure seeking as a modifier of the relationship of perceived risk with risky driving among young drivers. Accid Anal Prev 62:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hawkins JD, Weis JG (1985) The social development model: an integrated approach to delinquency prevention. J Primary Prev 6:73–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Heinrich HW (1931) Industrial accident prevention: a scientific approach. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Horvath C, Lewis I, Watson B (2012) The beliefs which motivate young male and female drivers to speed: a comparison of low and high intenders. Accid Anal Prev 45:334–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoyes TW, Dorn L, Desmond PA, Taylor R (1996) Risk homeostasis theory, utility and accident loss in a simulated driving task. Saf Sci 22:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hsieh H-F, Heinze JE, Aiyer SM, Stoddard SA, Wang J-L, Zimmerman MA (2015) Cross-domain influences on youth risky driving behaviors: a developmental cascade analysis. J Appl Dev Psychol 38:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Huang P, Winston FK (2011) Young drivers. In: Porter BE (ed) Handbook of traffic psychology. Academic Press, New York, pp 315–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jessor R (1991) Risk behavior in adolescence: a psychosocial framework for understanding and action. J Adolesc Health 12(8):597–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jessor R, Jessor SL (1977) Problem behavior and psychological development: a longitudinal study of youth. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Jiang Y, Zhang J, Chikaraishi M, Seya H, Fujiwara A (2015) Driving speed control behavior and safety on expressways under smart phone app based traffic safety information provision. In: Presented at the 14th international conference on travel behaviour research. Windsor, UK, 19–23 July 2015Google Scholar
  68. Kabiru CW, Elung’ata P, Mojola SA, Beguy D (2014) Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Child Adolescent Psychiatry Mental Health 8:24Google Scholar
  69. Kahneman D, Krueger AB, Schkade DA, Schwarz N, Stone AA (2004) A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: the day reconstruction method. Science 306(5702):1776–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaplan HS, Gangestad SG (2005) Life history theory and evolutionary psychology. In: Buss DM (ed) The handbook of evolutionarily psychology. Wiley, New York, pp 528–551Google Scholar
  71. Kuin H, Masthoff E, Kramer M, Scherder E (2015) The role of risky decision-making in aggression: a systematic review. Aggression Violent Behav 25:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lam LT (2015) Parental mental health and internet addiction in adolescents. Addict Behav 42:20–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lane SD, Cherek DR (2000) Analysis of risk taking in adults with a history of high risk behavior. Drug Alcohol Depend 60:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lantz PM, Jacobson PD, Warner KE, Wasserman J, Larson B (2000) Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tobacco Control 9(1):47–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Le Bas GA, Hughes MA, Stout JC (2015) Utility of self-report and performance-based measures of risk for predicting driving behavior in young people. Personality Individ Differ 86:184–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leandro M (2012) Young drivers and speed selection: a model guided by the theory of planned behavior. Transp Res Part F 15(3):219–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lenihan F (2007) Computer addiction—a sceptical view: invited commentary on: lost online. Adv Psychiatr Treat 13:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liourta E, Empelen PV (2008) The importance of self-regulatory and goal-conflicting process in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers. Accid Anal Prev 40:1191–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. LoBello A (2015) The implications of self-driving cars on insurance. Bryant University. Available: Accessed 13 Feb 2016
  80. Marcila I, Bergeron J, Audet T (2001) Motivational factors underlying the intention to drink and drive in young male drivers. J Saf Res 32:363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mason MJ, Tanner JF, Piacentini M, Freeman D, Anastasia T, Batat W, Boland W, Canbulut M, Drenten J, Hamby A, Rangan P, Yang Z (2013) Advancing a participatory approach for youth risk behavior: foundations, distinctions, and research directions. J Bus Res 66:1235–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McDonald MM, Donnellan MB, Navarrete CD (2012) A life history approach to understanding the dark triad. Personality Individ Differ 52(5):601–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mehta PH, Beer J (2010) Neural mechanisms of the testosterone-aggression relation: the role of orbitofrontal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 22(10):2357–2368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Melkman E (2015) Risk and protective factors for problem behaviors among youth in residential care. Child Youth Serv Rev 51:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Miller KE (2008) Energy drinks, race, and problem behaviors among college students. J Adolesc Health 43(5):490–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Miller G, Taubman-Ben-Ari O (2010) Driving styles among young novice drivers—the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics. Accid Anal Prev 42(2):558–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Moan IS (2013) Whether or not to ride with an intoxicated driver: predicting intentions using an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour. Transp Res Part F 20:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moan IS, Rise J (2011) Predicting intentions not to “drink and drive” using an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour. Accid Anal Prev 43(4):1378–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Moore S (2011) Understanding and managing anti-social behaviour on public transport through value change: the considerate travel campaign. Transp Policy 18(1):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Motak L, Cabaude C, Bouge J-C, Huet N (2014) Comparison of driving avoidance and self-regulatory patterns in younger and older drivers. Transp Res Part F 26:18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Naumann R, Dellinger AM, Krenow M (2011) Driving self-restriction in high-risk conditions: how do older drivers compare to others? J Saf Res 42:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. O’Brien F, Gormley M (2013) The contribution of inhibitory deficits to dangerous driving among young people. Accid Anal Prev 51:238–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pergamit MR, Huang L, Lane J (2001) The long term impact of adolescent risky behaviors and family environment. Submitted to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available: Accessed 2 Feb 2016
  94. Pharo H, Sim C, Graham M, Gross J, Hayne H (2011) Risky business: executive function, personality, and reckless behavior during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Behav Neurosci 125(6):970–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pilkington P, Bird E, Gray S, Towner E, Weld S, McKibben M-A (2014) Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners’ records. BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, Article Number: 78Google Scholar
  96. Pocuca N, Hides L, Zelenko O, Quek L-H, Stoyanov S, Tulloch K, Johnson D, Tjondronegoro D, Kavanagh DJ (2016) Initial prototype testing of ray’s night out: a new mobile app targeting risky drinking in young people. Comput Hum Behav 54:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Prentice C, Cotte J (2015) Multiple Ps’ effects on gambling, drinking and smoking: advancing theory and evidence. J Bus Res 68:2045–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ramos P, Díez E, Pérez K, Rodriguez-Martos A, Brugal MT, Villalbí JR (2008) Young people’s perceptions of traffic injury risks, prevention and enforcement measures: a qualitative study. Accid Anal Prev 40(4):1313–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rhodes N, Pivik K, Sutton M (2015) Risky driving among young male drivers: the effects of mood and passengers. Transp Res Part F 28:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rowe R, Andrews E, Harris PR, Armitage CJ, McKenna FP, Norman P (2016) Identifying beliefs underlying pre-drivers’ intentions to take risks: an application of the theory of planned behaviour. Accid Anal Prev 89:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Scagnolaria S, Walker J, Maggia R (2015) Young drivers’ night-time mobility preferences and attitude toward alcohol consumption: a hybrid choice model. Accid Anal Prev 83:74–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schoettle B, Sivak M (2014) A survey of public opinion about autonomous and self-driving vehicles in the U.S., the U.K., and Australia. Report No. UMTRI-2014-21, Transportation Research Institute, The University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  103. Scott-Parker B, Watson B, King MJ, Hyde MK (2011) Mileage, car ownership, experience of punishment avoidance and the risky driving of young drivers. Traffic Inj Prev 12(6):559–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Scott-Parker B, Watson B, King MJ, Hyde MK (2014) “I drove after drinking alcohol” and other risk driving behaviours reported by young novice drivers. Accid Anal Prev 70:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Scott-Parker B, Watson B, King MJ, Hyde MK (2015a) “I would have lost the respect of my friends and family if they knew I had bent the road rules”: parents, peers, and the perilous behaviour of young drivers. Transp Res Part F 28:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Scott-Parker B, King MJ, Watson B (2015b) The psychosocial purpose of driving and its relationship with the risky driving behaviour of young novice drivers. Transp Res Part F 33:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sigurdardottir SB, Kaplan S, Moller M (2014) The motivation underlying adolescents’ intended time-frame for driving licensure and car ownership: a socio-ecological approach. Transp Policy 36:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simons-Morton BG, Ouimet MC, Catalano RF (2008) Parenting and the young driver problem. Am J Prev Med 35(3):S294–S303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Slovic P, Fischhoff B (1982) Targeting risks. Risk Anal 2(4):227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Somers A, Weeratunga K (2015) Automated vehicles: are we ready? Internal report on potential implications for main roads Western Australia. Available: Access 29 May 2016
  111. Stearns SC (2004) The evolution of life histories. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  112. Steinberg L, Morris AS (2001) Adolescent development. Annu Rev Psychol 52:83–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sterrett EM, Dymnicki AB, Henry D, Byck GR, Bolland J, Mustanski B (2014) Predictors of co-occurring risk behavior trajectories among economically disadvantaged African-American youth: contextual and individual factors. J Adolesc Health 55:380–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stewart AE, Peter CCS (2004) Driving and risking avoidance following motor vehicle crashes in a non-clinical sample: psychometric properties of a new measure. Behav Res Therapy 42:859–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stradling SG (2011) Travel mode choice. In: Porter BE (ed) Handbook of traffic psychology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  116. Taubman-Ben-Ari O, Katz-Ben-Ami L (2012) The contribution of family climate for road safety and social environment to the reported driving behavior of young drivers. Accid Anal Prev 47:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Trimpop RM (1994) The psychology of risk taking behavior. North-Holland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. United Nations Population Fund (2014) The power of 1.8 billion: Adolescents, youth and the transformation of the future. Available: Accessed 31 Jan 2016
  119. Van Acker V (2016) Lifestyles and life choices. In: Zhang J (ed) Life-oriented behavioral research for urban policy. Springer, Chapter 3Google Scholar
  120. Wang XT, Kruger DJ, Wilke A (2009) Life history variables and risk-taking propensity. Evol Hum Behav 30:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ward RB (2012) Revisiting Heinrich’s law [online]. In: Chemeca 2012: quality of life through chemical engineering, Wellington, New Zealand, vol 2012. A.C.T.: Engineers Australia, Barton, 23–26 Sept 2012, pp 1179–1187Google Scholar
  122. Weber EU, Blais AR, Betz NE (2002) A domain-specific risk attitude scale: measuring risk perceptions and risk behaviors. J Behav Decis Making 15:263–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wenner CJ, Bianchi J, Figueredo AJ, Philippe Rushton J, Jacobs WJ (2013) Life history theory and social deviance: the mediating role of executive function. Intelligence 41:102–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) Health for the World’s Adolescents. A second chance in the second decade,
  125. WHO (World Health Organization) (2015) Global status report on road safety 2015Google Scholar
  126. Wilde GJS (1982) The theory of risk homeostasis: Implications for safety and health. Risk Anal 2(4):209–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wilde GJS (1998) Risk homeostasis theory: an overview. Inj Prev 4:89–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Young K (2010) Internet addiction over the decade: a personal look back. World Psychiatry 9:91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yu M, Nebbitt VE, Lombe M, Pitner RO, Salas-Wright CP (2012) Understanding tobacco use among urban African American adolescents living in public housing communities: a test of problem behavior theory. Addict Behav 37:978–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhang J, Jiang Y, Sasaki K, Tsubouchi M, Matsushita T, Kawai T, Fujiwara A (2014) A GPS-enabled smart phone app with simplified diagnosis functions of driving safety and warning information provision. In: Proceedings of the 21st world congress of intelligent transport systems. Detroit, USA, 7–11 Sept 2014Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

Personalised recommendations