Hydrogen production methods to meet hydrogen demand as a future fuel are considered. Current hydrogen production methods are described, and energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, and cost are discussed. After estimating possible future hydrogen use and demand, various hydrogen production methods meeting future hydrogen demand are addressed and their prospects considered.
A brief conclusion is that future demand for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles can be met by conventional fossil fuel-based hydrogen production methods, but novel low-carbon techniques for this production using biomass, renewable energy-based electrolysis, thermochemical methods, and photoelectrochemical water splitting are important to reduce CO2 emissions. The introduction of hydrogen energy provides benefits of energy saving, renewable energy use, and stabilization of energy security.
- Fossil fuel-based hydrogen
- Low-carbon hydrogen
- GHG emission
- Water splitting