The Japanese population started to decline in 2008, and it is forecasted to shrink further at an increasingly rapid rate (c.f. Fig. 1.1). Moreover, the number of elderly people (above 65 years old) continues to increase. The elderly ratio, that is, the ratio of the elderly people to the total population, will peak at around 38% in 2050 before leveling out.
- Coulmas, F., Conrad, H., Schad-Seifert, A., & Vogt, G. (Eds.). (2008). The demographic challenge: A handbook about Japan. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- Ehrlich, I., & Kim, J. (2007b). Has social security influenced family formation and fertility in OECD countries? An economic and econometric analysis. Journal of Pharmaceuticals Policy and Law, 9, 99–120.Google Scholar
- Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Hirao, K. (2007). The privatized education market and maternal employment in Japan. In F. M. Rosenbluth (Ed.), The political economy of Japan’s low fertility. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Myrdal, A. (1941). Nation and family: The Swedish experiment in democratic family and population policy. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. (2014). Social security in Japan. http://www.ipss.go.jp/s-info/e/ssj2014/PDF/ssj2014.pdf.
- Puhakka, M., & Viren, M. (2006). The effects of the size of the public sector on fertility. Discussion Papers No. 8, Aboa Centre for Economics.Google Scholar
- Sachs, J. D., & Kotlikoff, L. J. (2012). Smart machines and long-term misery. NBER Working Paper, 8629.Google Scholar
- Takeda, H. (2005). The political economy of reproduction in Japan: Between nation-state and everyday life. RoutledgeCurzon: London; New York.Google Scholar
- Yamashige, S. (2014). Population crisis and family policies in Japan. University of Tokyo Journal of Law and Politics, 11, 108–128.Google Scholar