New Communities

  • Shinji Yamashige
Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 16)


Relationships among members in traditional communities are usually defined vaguely. Hence, it is difficult to define formal rules to maintain cooperation and thus various informal punishments based on long-run relationships have been used to prevent selfish behavior that harms the community. In traditional communities, in order to impose social punishments on deviators of the norm of the community, people are monitored constantly and occasional conflicts with the deviators are solved by the whole community. In general, the relationships in communities are tight-knit and closed. For those people who like to have “freedom,” such a relationship can be quite oppressive.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of International and Public PolicyHitotsubashi UniversityKunitachiJapan

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