Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease: From Pathogenic Initiation to Downstream Outcomes

  • Sun-Ho Han
  • Jong-Chan Park
  • Inhee Mook-JungEmail author


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and is currently the most common form of dementia in the elderly population. Even though AD-related molecular alterations begin decades before the appearance of clinical symptoms, early diagnosis is not possible due to the absence of early diagnostic biomarkers. Early therapeutic treatment interventions are also lacking. Numerous clinical trial failures of promising therapeutic candidates have forced clinicians and researchers to identify diagnostic biomarkers for early detection. Here, we summarize promising biomarker candidates for AD that have been discovered to date, based on information from functional studies of neuropathological mechanisms and clinical research in AD. Potential biomarkers include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based, blood-based, and immunological biomarkers as well as biomarkers detected by genetic profiling and neuroimaging. We discuss the use of these proposed biomarkers in practical applications to diagnose and initiate therapeutic treatment, along with their advantages and limitations.


Alzheimer’s disease Biomarker Neurodegenerative disease CSF Amyloidβ Tau Inflammation Blood-brain barrier 


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, College of MedicineSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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