Quantum Simulation Using Ultracold Ytterbium Atoms in an Optical Lattice
In this chapter, we will summarize some of the important results obtained in quantum simulation research into quantum many-body systems using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The extremely high controllability that is offered by systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices has already allowed some highly impressive work to be accomplished. In particular, we focus on the two-electron atoms of ytterbium (Yb), which offer unique possibilities in the quantum simulation research field. After a brief introduction to the unique features of Yb atoms, we describe several important results, including the formation of strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixtures and a novel SU(N) Mott insulator, a novel high-resolution laser spectroscopic method for measurement of the superfluid-Mott insulator transition, a quantum simulation of the impurity system with an Yb-Li (lithium) atomic mixture, the realization of nonstandard optical lattices, and the development of methods to manipulate interatomic interactions using both magnetic and optical Feshbach resonances.
KeywordsQuantum simulation Optical lattice Hubbard model Cold atom Ytterbium Superfluid Mott insulator SU(N) symmetry Feshbach resonance
The author would like to thank all the members of Quantum Optics group of Kyoto University for their great contributions in performing the experiments described in this paper. Additionally, the author would like to thank M. Yamashita and K. Inaba for their collaboration in the theoretical analysis of atoms in an optical lattice.
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