Sustainable Farming Systems in Myanmar: The Implications of Findings from Field Surveys in the 2000s

Abstract

After the country’s first general election in 20 years in 2010, Myanmar moved from being ruled by a military junta to being ruled by an elected government and began to develop relations with the international community. The new government has sought to steadily accelerate the economic and social development of the country with the assistance of the international community. The development of agriculture and the rural sector is important in order to improve the welfare of Myanmar’s people, because the majority live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture.

Keywords

Chemical Fertiliser Rice Production Indigenous Knowledge Rice Farming Mountainous Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albano, A., & Takeda, S. (2012). Ifugao vegetable terraces: History and sustainability of vegetable farming in Tinoc, Ifugao, Philippines. Research for Tropical Agriculture, 5(extra issue 1), 103–104.Google Scholar
  2. Ando, K., Lay Lay Khaing, Khin Oo, Khin Lay Swe. (2010). Farmers’ cropping systems as adapted to the dry climate in Yamethin Township, Burma central plain. Research for Tropical Agriculture 3(extra issue 2), 129–130. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  3. Ando, K., Lay Lay Khaing, Khin Lay Swe. (2011). Cropping systems in abnormal weather in the dry zone of Myanmar’s central plain. Research for Tropical Agriculture 4(extra issue 1), 85–86. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  4. Badenoch, N. A. (2006). Social networks in natural resource governance in a multi-ethnic watershed of Northern Thailand. Unpublished PhD thesis, Kyoto University.Google Scholar
  5. Brookfield, H., Parsons, H., & Brookfield, M. (Eds.). (2003). Agrodiversity: Learning from farmers across the world. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bryant, R. L. (1996). The political ecology of forestry in Burma 1824–1994. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  7. CSO (Central Statistical Organization). (2006). Myanmar agricultural statistics. Yangon: CSO, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the Government of the Union of Myanmar.Google Scholar
  8. Daniels, C. (Ed.). (2007). Kokkyo naki sanchimin: Tai bunkaken no seitaishi [Hill people without borders: Ecological history in the Tai culture area]. Tokyo: Korosha. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Daniels, C. (Ed.). (2008). Monsuun azia no seitaishi 2: Chiiki no seitaishi [Ecological history in monsoon Asia 2: Ecological history of the region]. Tokyo: Koubundou. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Egashira, K., & Aye Aye Than. (2006). Cropping characteristics in Myanmar with some case studies in Shan State and Mandalay Division. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 51(2), 373–382.Google Scholar
  11. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). (2009). FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org/.
  12. Feeny, D., Berkes, F., McCay, B. J., & Acheson, J. M. (1990). The tragedy of the commons: Twenty-two years later. Human Ecology, 18(1), 1–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fujita, K., Mieno, F., & Okamoto, I. (Eds.). (2009). The economic transition in Myanmar after 1988: Market economy versus state control. Singapore: NUS Press and Kyoto University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Fukui, H. (1988). Donden mura: tohoku tai no nogyoseitai [Don Daeng Village: Agroecology of Northeast Thailand]. Tokyo: Sobunsha. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Fukui, H. (1997). Rice farming. In Center for Southeast Asia, Kyoto University (Ed.), Jiten tonan azia [Encyclopedia of southeast Asia: Landscape, ecology, and natural environment]. Tokyo: Kobundo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  16. Hossain, M., & Singh, V. P. (2000). Fertilizer use in Asian agriculture: Implications for sustaining food security and the environment. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 57(2), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Inoue, M. (2003). Participation of local people in forest policy formulation. In K. Ikeya (Ed.), Chikyu kankyo mondai no jinruigaku: Shizen shigen heno human inpakuto [Anthropology of global environmental issues: Human impact on natural Resources]. Kyoto: Sekaishisosha. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Inoue, M. (2004). Komonzu no shiso wo motomete: Karimantan no mori de kangaeru [Toward the idea of commons: From a field survey in the forest of Kalimantan]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). (2009). IRRI world rice statistics. http://www.irri.org/
  20. Ito, T. (1979). Traditional technology of irrigation and the development of rice farming in Burma. Shiroku Kagoshima University, 11, 39–80 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  21. Kaida, Y. (1997). Landscape of the deltas: Introduction. In Center for Southeast Asia, Kyoto University (Ed.), Jiten tonan azia [Encyclopedia of Southeast Asia: Landscape, ecology, and natural environment]. Tokyo: Kobundo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Ko, J., Hall, C. A. S., & Lemus, L. G. L. (1998). Resource use rate and efficiency as indicators of regional sustainability: An examination of five countries. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 51(1–2), 571–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kono, Y. (2009). Rice farming in semi-arid regions. In S. Haruyama, M. Fujimaki & H. Noma (Eds.), Sekai chiri kouza 3 tonan azia [World geography: Southeast Asia]. Tokyo: Asakura Shoten. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Kono, Y., & Rambo, T. A. (2004). Some key issues relating to sustainable agro-resources management in the mountainous region of mainland Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian Studies, 41(4), 550–565.Google Scholar
  25. Kurita, K., Okamoto, I., Kurosaki, T., & Fujita, K. (2004). Rice production-oriented policy and the rural economy in Myanmar: Income analysis on household survey data in eight villages. Azia keizai (Monthly Journal of the Institute of Developing Economics), 45(8), 2–37 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  26. Leach, E. R. (1970). Political systems of highland Burma. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  27. Leisz, S. J., Kono, Y., Fox, J., Yanagisawa, M., & Rambo, T. A. (2009). Land use changes in the uplands of Southeast Asia: Proximate and distant causes. Southeast Asian Studies, 47(3), 237–243.Google Scholar
  28. Ma, W., Li, J., Ma, L., Wang, F., Sisák, I., Cushman, G., & Zhang, F. (2009). Nitrogen flow and use efficiency in the production and utilization of wheat, rice, and maize in China. Agricultural Systems, 99(1), 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacLeod, C. J., & Moller, H. (2006). Intensification and diversification of New Zealand agriculture since 1960: An evaluation of current indicators of land use change. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 115, 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Matsuda, M. (2008). Stability of crop production under uncertain rainfall in the central dry zone of Myanmar. Research for Tropical Agriculture, 1(extra issue 2), 67–68 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  31. Matsuda, M. (2009). Dynamics of rice production development in Myanmar: Growth center, technological changes, and driving forces. Tropical Agriculture and Development, 53(1), 14–27.Google Scholar
  32. Matsuda, M. (2010). Ecohistory in southern Shan State, Myanmar: The development process of commercial farming and indigenous irrigation systems. Noko no gijutsu to bunka (Farming Technology and Culture), 27, 109–134 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  33. Matsuda, M. (2011). Intensification level of rice farming in Myanmar: Implication for its sustainable development. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 13(1), 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matsuda, M. (2012). Interaction between human and nature in Myanmar: Findings from recent field surveys and implications for agriculture and rural development. In K. Odaka & F. Mieno (Eds.), Myanma keizai no atarashii hikari [The new light of Myanmar’s economy]. Tokyo: Keisoshobo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  35. Matsuda, M. (2013). Upland farming systems coping with uncertain rainfall in the central dry zone of Myanmar: How stable is indigenous multiple cropping under semi-arid conditions? Human Ecology, 45, 927–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Merts, O., Padoch, C., Fox, J., Cramb, R. A., Leisz, S. J., Lam, N. T., & Vien, T. D. (2009). Swidden change in Southeast Asia: Understanding causes and consequences. Human Ecology, 37, 259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miyagawa, S. (2000). Rhythm of rice farming in rain-fed lowlands. In K. Tanaka (Ed.), Shizen to musubu: no ni miru tayousei [Linkages between humans and nature: Diversity in agriculture]. Kyoto: Showado. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  38. Miyagawa, S. (2005). Farming systems in Asia: Rain-fed lowlands in Thailand. In S. Miyagawa (Ed.), Saibai shisutemu gaku [Farming systems research]. Tokyo: Asakura Shoten. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  39. Miyagawa, S., Kuroda, T., Matsufuji, H., & Hattori, T. (1985). Don Daeng village in north-east Thailand: Typology of rice cultivation. Southeast Asian Studies, 23(3), 235–251 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  40. Miyata, T. (2008). Thai fragrant rice and north-east Thailand. Toyo Bunka (Oriental Culture), 88, 87–121 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  41. Nawata, E. (2008). Degradation of farm land and agriculture in Southeast Asia. In Y. Yamasue (Ed.), Sakumotsu seisan no mirai wo hiraku [Agriculture in the 21st century]. Kyoto: Kyoto University Press. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  42. Peng, S., Buresh, R. J., Huang, J., Yang, J., Zou, Y., Zhong, X., Wang, G., & Zhang, F. (2006). Strategies for overcoming low agronomic nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated rice systems in China. Field Crops Research, 96(1), 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pimentel, D., Hurd, L. E., Bellotti, A. C., Forster, M. J., Oka, I. N., Sholes, O. D., & Whitman, R. J. (1973). Food production and the energy crisis. Science, 182, 443–449.CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Saito, T. (1974). History of traditional weir irrigation systems in Burma: A case study of Kyaukse region. Azia keizai (Monthly Journal of the Institute of Developing Economics), 15(9), 21–39 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  45. Saito, T. (1987). Introduction and extension of high-yielding varieties of rice in Burma: Present situation and problems. In T. Takigawa (Ed.), Revolution of farming technology and rural community. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  46. Scoones, I., Devereux, S., & Haddad, L. (2005). Introduction: New directions for African agriculture. IDS Bulletin, 36(2), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scott, J. G., & Hardiman, J. P. (1900). Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States. Part I (vol. 2). Rangoon: The Superintendent Government Printing.Google Scholar
  48. Shimada, S. (2007). Rural transition in modern Africa: Challenge of area study to read change. Tokyo: Kokon Shoin (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  49. Takahashi, A. (2000). Myanmar’s village economy in transition: Peasants’ lives under the market-oriented economy. Tokyo: University Tokyo Press (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  50. Takaya, Y. (1985). Nature and land use in Southeast Asia. Tokyo: Keiso Shobo (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  51. Takeda, S. (1990). Reforestation by the taungya system in the 1920s in Burma. Bulletin of the Kyoto University Forests, 62, 108–121 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  52. Tan, H., Zhou, L., & Xie, R. (2007). Farmland nutrient cycle and nutrient balance in various cropping systems for subtropical regions. Tropics, 16(2), 115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tanaka, K., & Matsuda, M. (2010). Changes in rice farming in the China border region of Myanmar. Noko no gijutsu to bunka (Farming Technology and Culture), 27, 86–108 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  54. Thawnghmung, A. M. (2004). Behind the teak curtain: Authoritarianism, agricultural policies and political legitimacy in Rural Burma/Myanmar. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  55. Tilman, D., Cassman, K. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R., & Polasky, S. (2002). Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418, 671–677.CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Tong, C., Hall, C. A. S., & Wang, H. (2003). Land use change in rice, wheat and maize production in China (1961–1998). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 95(2–3), 523–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yanagisawa, M. (2000). Agroecological evaluation of the intensified cropping systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Unpublished PhD thesis, Kyoto University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© JICA Research Institute 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of International RelationsRitsumeikan UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations