The Development of the Chinese ICT Industry and Japanese Firms’ Offshoring: With a Focus on Dalian’s Case

Part of the New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives book series (NFRSASIPER, volume 17)


Dalian is a major destination of offshoring of software development and BPO for Japanese and Western clients. Large reasons for the successful development of software and information service industry in this city are the ample supply of human resources, especially Japanese-speaking labor forces, and the ICT industrial development policy of the Dalian municipal government. The government clearly raised the objective of making the city as the offshore destination for Japanese ICT firms and promoted the city’s industrial structure reform from the heavy and chemical industry to the software and information service industry. Taking advantage of the superior initial conditions such as its historical and geographical relations with Japan and its relatively cheap labor resources, Dalian pursued the formation of the cluster of the software and information service industry. Referring to Porter’s industrial cluster framework, this chapter explores the development of the Dalian’s industrial structure.


Dalian Competitiveness Human resources Software park 


  1. Charla GB, Zhao W, Watanabe C, Tou Y (2013) Institutional ‘embeddedness’ networks and China’s IT industry: an analysis of Dalian Software Park. In: Cooke P, Searle G, O’Conner K (eds) The economic geography of the IT industry in the Asia Pacific region. Routledge, London, pp 264–277Google Scholar
  2. China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House (ed) (2008–2014) zhongguodianziqingbaochanyetongjinianjian (Yearbook of China’s electronic information industry). Dianzigongyechubanshe (Electronics Industry Press) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Dalian Municipal Bureau of Statistics (2009–2012) Dalianshiguominjingjiheshehuifazhantongjigongbao (Dalian municipality’s public report of national economy and social development statistics). Accessed 15 Aug 2014 (in Chinese)
  4. Dalian Municipality Committee on Economy and Information/Dalian Software Industry Association (2009) White Paper on software and information services industry (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. Dalian Software Industry Association (2013) Dalianruanjianhangyexiehuidiaochari Yuanbianzhiduiruanjianhangyeyingxiangtongzhi (Influence of the depreciation of Yen on the software industry). Accessed 1 Dec 2014 (in Chinese)
  6. E LL (2008) fuwuwaibaojingzhengliyingxiangyinsuyanjiu-jiyuzhongguodefenxi (Research on the factors influencing the competitiveness of service outsourcing based on the analysis of China. Jingjiwentitansuo (Inquiry into Economic Issues), 155–158, 170 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. JETRO (2013) Dairen shi no tainichi autosoushingu kigyo, enyasu ya jinkenhi joushou de kukyoni (Dalian City’s outsourcing firms to Japan have faced difficulties due to weakening Yen and rising labor cost). JETRO Tsusho Koho (Business Information) 19 Nov, Issue No. 5285d8a301f40 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. JETRO Dalian Office (2015) Dairen shi gaikyo (Dalian city outlook) 2015 editions.
  9. Jue CY, Zheng JZ (2012) fuwuwaibaodejishuwaiyixiaoyingyanjiujiyudalianshi ruanjianwaibao hangyedefenxi (Research on technology spillover effects of service outsourcing: analysis of Dalian software outsourcing industry). Guojimaoyiwenti (International Trade Issues) June (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Kawabata N (2014) Dairen shi no joho sabisu sangyo (Information services industry in Dalian). Industrial Development Working Paper 31 (Graduate School of Economics, Tohoku University) July (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. Kin K (2011) Chu-In ICT senryaku to sangyo shijo no hikakukenkyu (Comparative studies of China-India ICT strategies and their industrial markets) Fujitsu Soken Research Report 364 January:1–24 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  12. Kyo K (2006) Chugoku no nihonmuke ofushoa kaihatsu (Offshore software development of Japan in China). Kokushikan Daigaku Seikei Ronshu 137/138:61–92 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. Liu X (2008) dalianruanjianwaibaochanyejiqunfazhantantao (Discussion on the development of software outsourcing industry cluster in Dalian). Mod Bus Trade Ind 10:121–122 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, PRC (various issues) Statistical yearbook of China’s electronic information industryGoogle Scholar
  15. Porter ME (1990) The competitive advantage of nations. Free Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shenzhen Software Industry Association (2013) shenzhenshiruanjianhexinxifuwuYechanyefazhan baogao 2012 (Shenzhen development products and services industry report 2012) HYPERLINK http://www.szsti. (in Chinese)
  17. Swenson DL (2000, April) Firm outsourcing decisions: evidence from U.S. foreign trade zones. Econ Inq 38(2):175–189Google Scholar
  18. Takahashi M (2009) Chugoku sofutouea sangyo no gijutsu hatten (Technology development of Chinese software industry). Ajiya Kenkyu 55(1):40–53 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Takahashi N (2013) Chugoku sofutouea kigyo no gijutu kojo to ofushoa kaihatsu no henka (China’s software firms’ technological up-grading and changes of offshore development). Keiei Kenkyu (Osaka City Univ) 64(3):1–23 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Umezawa T (2007) Sofutouea sangyo niokeru kokusaibungyo (Division of labor in the software industry). Kokusai Bijinesu Gakkai Nenpo 13:1–19 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Umezawa T (2011) Nikkei sofutouea kigyo niokeru kokusaibungyo to jinnteki shigennkannri sisutemu (International division of labor and human resource management system in Japanese software firms). In: Shiraki M (ed) Chenjingu chaina no jinteki sigen kanri (Changing China’s Human resources management). Hakuto Shobo, Tokyo, pp 227–263 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. VCCI (2014, November 4) Vietnam-Japan ICT cooperation: entering new chapter. Vietnam Bus Forum, Vietnam Chamb Commer Ind. 4 Nov.
  23. Wu Y (2007) yindufuwuwaibaofazhandesikaoyujiejian (Learning from the experience of the development of service outsourcing in India). duiwaijingmaoshiwu (Pract Foreign Econ Relat Trade) 2007 (1):62–66 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Ye M (2010) dalianruanjianfazhandexianzhuangyuzhanwang (The present situation and Prospect of software development in Dalian). In Ye M (ed) The development state and outlook of Dalian Software Industry. (in Chinese)
  25. Zhang Y, Kawabata N (2012) Dairen shi ni okeru sofutouea joho sabisu sangyo no keisei (The Formation of software and information services industry in Dalian, China). Ajiya Keiei Kenkyu (Asia Manag Assoc) 18:35–46 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  26. Zhao W (2013) Chugoku ni okeru sangyo kurasuta no hatten ni kansuru kosatsu (A consideration of industrial cluster development in China). Fujitsu Soken Research Report (October) 410: 1–22 Accessed 25 May 2015 (in Japanese)
  27. Zhao W, Watanabe C, Charla GB (2009) Competitive advantage in an industry cluster: the case of Dalian Software Park in China. Technol Soc 31(2):139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zheng J, Qian F, Zhang P (2014) duirifuwuwaibaofazhankunjing, chengyinjiduice (The plight of the development of services outsourcing to Japan, causes and countermeasures). Int Econ Cooper 5:32–35 (in Chinese)Google Scholar


  1. Dailian Municipal Bureau of Statistics: (DalianshiguominjingJiheshe huifazhantongjigongbao: Dalian National economic and social development statistics publication) (in Chinese)
  2. Dalian Municipal Bureau of Finance: (in Chinese)
  3. Dalian Municipal Bureau of Human Resources and Social Security: (in Chinese)
  4. JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization): (in Japanese)
  5. Ministry of Commerce, PRC: (in Chinese)
  6. Ministry of Commerce, PRC, Department of Trade in Services and Commercial Services (Zhonghuarenmingongheguo shangyebufuwumaoyiheshangmaofuwuyesi): Chinese)
  7. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, PRC: (in Chinese)
  8. People’s Government of Liaoning Province (Liaoningshengrenminzhengfu): (in Chinese)

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Foreign LanguagesLingnan Normal UniversityGuangdongChina

Personalised recommendations